Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps: Value analysis of closing-the-loop under demand and supply uncertainties. Machacek, E.; Richter, J., L.; Habib, K.; and Klossek, P. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 104:76-93, Elsevier B.V., 2015.
Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps: Value analysis of closing-the-loop under demand and supply uncertainties [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Rare earth element (REE) recycling remains low at 1%, despite significant uncertainties related to future supply and demand and EU 2020 energy efficiency objectives. We use a global production network framework of REE flows from mine to REE phosphors in energy-efficient lamps to illustrate the potential of closed-loop recycling for secondary supply under different scenarios of primary supply and forecasted demand for LEDs, CFLs and LFLs. We find that different End-of-Life Recycling Rate scenarios for REE secondary supply range between meeting forecasted REE demand and filling primary supply gaps, and competing with primary supply. Our argument centres on diversifying REE sourcing with recycling and the choice between primary and secondary supply. We stress that secondary REE phosphor supply requires further policy support for lamp collection and a discussion of the value of REE phosphor recycling which underlies its economic feasibility.
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 title = {Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps: Value analysis of closing-the-loop under demand and supply uncertainties},
 type = {article},
 year = {2015},
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 keywords = {Circular economy,Energy-efficient lamps,Global production network,Rare earth elements,Recycling,Resource conservation},
 pages = {76-93},
 volume = {104},
 websites = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.09.005},
 publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
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 abstract = {Rare earth element (REE) recycling remains low at 1%, despite significant uncertainties related to future supply and demand and EU 2020 energy efficiency objectives. We use a global production network framework of REE flows from mine to REE phosphors in energy-efficient lamps to illustrate the potential of closed-loop recycling for secondary supply under different scenarios of primary supply and forecasted demand for LEDs, CFLs and LFLs. We find that different End-of-Life Recycling Rate scenarios for REE secondary supply range between meeting forecasted REE demand and filling primary supply gaps, and competing with primary supply. Our argument centres on diversifying REE sourcing with recycling and the choice between primary and secondary supply. We stress that secondary REE phosphor supply requires further policy support for lamp collection and a discussion of the value of REE phosphor recycling which underlies its economic feasibility.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Machacek, Erika and Richter, Jessika Luth and Habib, Komal and Klossek, Polina},
 journal = {Resources, Conservation and Recycling}
}
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