Turbulence in a small boreal lake: Consequences for air–water gas exchange. MacIntyre, S.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.; Crowe, A. T.; Karlsson, J.; Andersson, A.; Gålfalk, M.; Rutgersson, A.; Podgrajsek, E.; and Melack, J. M. Limnology and Oceanography, n/a(n/a):20, 2020. _eprint: https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/lno.11645
Turbulence in a small boreal lake: Consequences for air–water gas exchange [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The hydrodynamics within small boreal lakes have rarely been studied, yet knowing whether turbulence at the air–water interface and in the water column scales with metrics developed elsewhere is essential for computing metabolism and fluxes of climate-forcing trace gases. We instrumented a humic, 4.7 ha, boreal lake with two meteorological stations, three thermistor arrays, an infrared (IR) camera to quantify surface divergence, obtained turbulence as dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (ε) using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a temperature-gradient microstructure profiler, and conducted chamber measurements for short periods to obtain fluxes and gas transfer velocities (k). Near-surface ε varied from 10−8 to 10−6 m2 s−3 for the 0–4 m s−1 winds and followed predictions from Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The coefficient of eddy diffusivity in the mixed layer was up to 10−3 m2 s−1 on the windiest afternoons, an order of magnitude less other afternoons, and near molecular at deeper depths. The upper thermocline upwelled when Lake numbers (LN) dropped below four facilitating vertical and horizontal exchange. k computed from a surface renewal model using ε agreed with values from chambers and surface divergence and increased linearly with wind speed. Diurnal thermoclines formed on sunny days when winds were \textless 3 m s−1, a condition that can lead to elevated near-surface ε and k. Results extend scaling approaches developed in the laboratory and for larger water bodies, illustrate turbulence and k are greater than expected in small wind-sheltered lakes, and provide new equations to quantify fluxes.
@article{macintyre_turbulence_2020,
	title = {Turbulence in a small boreal lake: {Consequences} for air–water gas exchange},
	volume = {n/a},
	issn = {1939-5590},
	shorttitle = {Turbulence in a small boreal lake},
	url = {https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lno.11645},
	doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.11645},
	abstract = {The hydrodynamics within small boreal lakes have rarely been studied, yet knowing whether turbulence at the air–water interface and in the water column scales with metrics developed elsewhere is essential for computing metabolism and fluxes of climate-forcing trace gases. We instrumented a humic, 4.7 ha, boreal lake with two meteorological stations, three thermistor arrays, an infrared (IR) camera to quantify surface divergence, obtained turbulence as dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (ε) using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a temperature-gradient microstructure profiler, and conducted chamber measurements for short periods to obtain fluxes and gas transfer velocities (k). Near-surface ε varied from 10−8 to 10−6 m2 s−3 for the 0–4 m s−1 winds and followed predictions from Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The coefficient of eddy diffusivity in the mixed layer was up to 10−3 m2 s−1 on the windiest afternoons, an order of magnitude less other afternoons, and near molecular at deeper depths. The upper thermocline upwelled when Lake numbers (LN) dropped below four facilitating vertical and horizontal exchange. k computed from a surface renewal model using ε agreed with values from chambers and surface divergence and increased linearly with wind speed. Diurnal thermoclines formed on sunny days when winds were {\textless} 3 m s−1, a condition that can lead to elevated near-surface ε and k. Results extend scaling approaches developed in the laboratory and for larger water bodies, illustrate turbulence and k are greater than expected in small wind-sheltered lakes, and provide new equations to quantify fluxes.},
	language = {en},
	number = {n/a},
	urldate = {2021-01-18},
	journal = {Limnology and Oceanography},
	author = {MacIntyre, Sally and Bastviken, David and Arneborg, Lars and Crowe, Adam T. and Karlsson, Jan and Andersson, Andreas and Gålfalk, Magnus and Rutgersson, Anna and Podgrajsek, Eva and Melack, John M.},
	year = {2020},
	note = {\_eprint: https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/lno.11645},
	pages = {20},
}
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