Gas on the Eastern Front During the First World War (1915–1917). Main, S. J. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 28(1):99--132, January, 2015.
Gas on the Eastern Front During the First World War (1915–1917) [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Russia’s first experience of chemical warfare occurred during the First World War. Although the first use of chemical weapons on the Eastern Front was long thought to have taken place in April/May 1915, in actual fact, the first time the Russians experienced a chemical agent in action was earlier than that, in January 1915 at Bolimow. Using a variety of Russian, English, and translated German material, the article analyzes the use and effect of gas on operations in the Eastern Front throughout 1915–1917. Given the newness of the weapon, its impact was less considerable than it could have been and its effectiveness hampered less by technological counter-measures and more by a lack of serious thought given to its potential operational impact.
@article{ main_gas_2015,
  title = {Gas on the {Eastern} {Front} {During} the {First} {World} {War} (1915–1917)},
  volume = {28},
  issn = {1351-8046},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518046.2014.963437},
  doi = {10.1080/13518046.2014.963437},
  abstract = {Russia’s first experience of chemical warfare occurred during the First World War. Although the first use of chemical weapons on the Eastern Front was long thought to have taken place in April/May 1915, in actual fact, the first time the Russians experienced a chemical agent in action was earlier than that, in January 1915 at Bolimow. Using a variety of Russian, English, and translated German material, the article analyzes the use and effect of gas on operations in the Eastern Front throughout 1915–1917. Given the newness of the weapon, its impact was less considerable than it could have been and its effectiveness hampered less by technological counter-measures and more by a lack of serious thought given to its potential operational impact.},
  language = {en},
  number = {1},
  urldate = {2015-03-21TZ},
  journal = {The Journal of Slavic Military Studies},
  author = {Main, Steven J.},
  month = {January},
  year = {2015},
  keywords = {english},
  pages = {99--132}
}
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