Contestation and participation: Operationalizing and mapping democratic models for 80 electoral democracies, 1990–2009. Maleki, A. & Hendriks, F. Acta Politica, 51(2):237--272, April, 2016.
Contestation and participation: Operationalizing and mapping democratic models for 80 electoral democracies, 1990–2009 [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In recent decades, some attempts have been made to empirically assess different models of democracy in action by identifying and measuring various indicators. Lijphart’s seminal work, Patterns of Democracy, is one of the most comprehensive attempts to categorize models of democracy systematically. However, it has mainly focused on established democracies. There is no extensive operationalization of models of democracy which evaluates a broader range of countries, including new democracies in a systematic way. This article aims to fill the gap by operationalizing two persistent dimensions of democracy – contestation and participation – for 80 electoral democracies around the world between 1990 and 2009. Extracting empirical scores, we present a two-dimensional global map of democracy over two decades. We finally examine the associations between democratic models and indices of level and performance of democracy.
@article{maleki_contestation_2016,
	title = {Contestation and participation: {Operationalizing} and mapping democratic models for 80 electoral democracies, 1990–2009},
	volume = {51},
	issn = {0001-6810},
	shorttitle = {Contestation and participation},
	url = {http://www.palgrave-journals.com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/ap/journal/v51/n2/full/ap201510a.html},
	doi = {10.1057/ap.2015.10},
	abstract = {In recent decades, some attempts have been made to empirically assess different models of democracy in action by identifying and measuring various indicators. Lijphart’s seminal work, Patterns of Democracy, is one of the most comprehensive attempts to categorize models of democracy systematically. However, it has mainly focused on established democracies. There is no extensive operationalization of models of democracy which evaluates a broader range of countries, including new democracies in a systematic way. This article aims to fill the gap by operationalizing two persistent dimensions of democracy – contestation and participation – for 80 electoral democracies around the world between 1990 and 2009. Extracting empirical scores, we present a two-dimensional global map of democracy over two decades. We finally examine the associations between democratic models and indices of level and performance of democracy.},
	language = {en},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2016-04-15},
	journal = {Acta Politica},
	author = {Maleki, Ammar and Hendriks, Frank},
	month = apr,
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {contestation, democratic models, dimensions of democracy, electoral democracy, measuring democracy, participation},
	pages = {237--272},
	file = {Full Text PDF:files/54408/Maleki and Hendriks - 2016 - Contestation and participation Operationalizing a.pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:files/54409/ap201510a.html:text/html}
}
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