Impact of Distributed Generation at the Customer. Marius Salen Master's Thesis.
abstract   bibtex   
This Master’s Thesis gives an understanding of how distributed generation impact both the Distributed System Operator (DSO) and the customers. The simulations in this thesis are divided into two where the programs NETBAS and HOMER Pro are used. In a collaboration with the DSO at Hvaler which is Norgesnett, a weak grid and a robust grid was picked and simulated in NETBAS. The aim of the simulations is to study the impact clouds have on the power output from the solar panels. Since the production drops locally at the customer when the weather changes from sun to cloudy. Also, the impact this has on the DSO with the requirements given from § 3.4 in the Norwegian Directive on Quality of Supply (FoL) regarding ∆U stationary are conducted. The simulations are conducted with different scenarios which illustrate the production in the solar panels when cloudy. In a collaboration with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) solar data is used to get a more realistic picture of the sun conditions on the different scenarios. The main findings are that the passing clouds had a large impact on the customers regarding the voltage drop at the weak grid in Søndre Sandøy. Also, some customers at Søndre Sandøy without solar panels got affected by the customers with solar panels. Resulting in some of the customers without solar panels also exceeded the limit of 3 % regarding ∆U stationary from FoL. On the other hand, the more robust network at Norderhaug had fewer challenges and could hold a higher solar capacity. The simulations with HOMER Pro found that the demand rate which is 76.15 (NOK/kW/mo) at Hvaler today, is not profitable with a battery energy storage system (BESS) in combination with a PV system used for peak shaving. Furthermore, the demand rate is not profitable for this solution unless it is doubled. Also, the simulations found that a PV system is more profitable compared to a regular grid connected customer and a combined PV + BESS solution. The conclusion is that the clouds had a significant impact on the weak grid simulated at Hvaler, resulting in § 3.4 from FoL is not met in many cases. Also, the robust grid is affected but could withstand a much higher capacity of solar due to the higher short-circuit performance. From the simulations with HOMER Pro the conclusion is that increasing the demand rate to twice the amount today is not socioeconomically.
@thesis{MariusSalen2019,
  title = {Impact of Distributed Generation at the Customer},
  author = {{Marius Salen}},
  date = {2019-05-14},
  institution = {{University of South-Eastern Norway}},
  location = {{Porsgrunn}},
  abstract = {This Master’s Thesis gives an understanding of how distributed generation impact both the Distributed System Operator (DSO) and the customers. The simulations in this thesis are divided into two where the programs NETBAS and HOMER Pro are used. In a collaboration with the DSO at Hvaler which is Norgesnett, a weak grid and a robust grid was picked and simulated in NETBAS. The aim of the simulations is to study the impact clouds have on the power output from the solar panels. Since the production drops locally at the customer when the weather changes from sun to cloudy. Also, the impact this has on the DSO with the requirements given from § 3.4 in the Norwegian Directive on Quality of Supply (FoL) regarding ∆U stationary are conducted. The simulations are conducted with different scenarios which illustrate the production in the solar panels when cloudy. In a collaboration with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) solar data is used to get a more realistic picture of the sun conditions on the different scenarios. The main findings are that the passing clouds had a large impact on the customers regarding the voltage drop at the weak grid in Søndre Sandøy. Also, some customers at Søndre Sandøy without solar panels got affected by the customers with solar panels. Resulting in some of the customers without solar panels also exceeded the limit of 3 \% regarding ∆U stationary from FoL. On the other hand, the more robust network at Norderhaug had fewer challenges and could hold a higher solar capacity. The simulations with HOMER Pro found that the demand rate which is 76.15 (NOK/kW/mo) at Hvaler today, is not profitable with a battery energy storage system (BESS) in combination with a PV system used for peak shaving. Furthermore, the demand rate is not profitable for this solution unless it is doubled. Also, the simulations found that a PV system is more profitable compared to a regular grid connected customer and a combined PV + BESS solution. The conclusion is that the clouds had a significant impact on the weak grid simulated at Hvaler, resulting in § 3.4 from FoL is not met in many cases. Also, the robust grid is affected but could withstand a much higher capacity of solar due to the higher short-circuit performance. From the simulations with HOMER Pro the conclusion is that increasing the demand rate to twice the amount today is not socioeconomically.},
  annotation = {Master's thesis},
  file = {/home/dietmarw/FoU/Publications/zotero/storage/7PKPVZDD/Salen - Impact of distributed generation at the customer.pdf},
  type = {Master's Thesis}
}

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