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BACKGROUND The single-step covariance matrix H combines the pedigree-based relationship matrix [Formula: see text] with the more accurate information on realized relatedness of genotyped individuals represented by the genomic relationship matrix [Formula: see text]. In particular, to improve convergence behavior of iterative approaches and to reduce inflation, two weights [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have been introduced in the definition of [Formula: see text], which blend the inverse of a part of [Formula: see text] with the inverse of [Formula: see text]. Since the definition of this blending is based on the equation describing [Formula: see text], its impact on the structure of [Formula: see text] is not obvious. In a joint discussion, we considered the question of the shape of [Formula: see text] for non-trivial [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. RESULTS Here, we present the general matrix [Formula: see text] as a function of these parameters and discuss its structure and properties. Moreover, we screen for optimal values of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with respect to predictive ability, inflation and iterations up to convergence on a well investigated, publicly available wheat data set. CONCLUSION Our results may help the reader to develop a better understanding for the effects of changes of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the covariance model. In particular, we give theoretical arguments that as a general tendency, inflation will be reduced by increasing [Formula: see text] or by decreasing [Formula: see text].

@article{Martini2018TheEffect, abstract = {BACKGROUND The single-step covariance matrix H combines the pedigree-based relationship matrix [Formula: see text] with the more accurate information on realized relatedness of genotyped individuals represented by the genomic relationship matrix [Formula: see text]. In particular, to improve convergence behavior of iterative approaches and to reduce inflation, two weights [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] have been introduced in the definition of [Formula: see text], which blend the inverse of a part of [Formula: see text] with the inverse of [Formula: see text]. Since the definition of this blending is based on the equation describing [Formula: see text], its impact on the structure of [Formula: see text] is not obvious. In a joint discussion, we considered the question of the shape of [Formula: see text] for non-trivial [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. RESULTS Here, we present the general matrix [Formula: see text] as a function of these parameters and discuss its structure and properties. Moreover, we screen for optimal values of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with respect to predictive ability, inflation and iterations up to convergence on a well investigated, publicly available wheat data set. CONCLUSION Our results may help the reader to develop a better understanding for the effects of changes of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the covariance model. In particular, we give theoretical arguments that as a general tendency, inflation will be reduced by increasing [Formula: see text] or by decreasing [Formula: see text].}, author = {Martini, Johannes W. R. and Schrauf, Matias F. and Garcia-Baccino, Carolina A. and Pimentel, Eduardo C. G. and {[...]} and Simianer, Henner}, year = {2018}, title = {The effect of the H\textsuperscript{-1} scaling factors \textgreek{t} and \textgreek{w} on the structure of H in the single-step procedure}, keywords = {gen;phd}, pages = {16}, volume = {50}, number = {1}, journal = {Genetics, Selection, Evolution : GSE}, doi = {10.1186/s12711-018-0386-x}, file = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29653506}, file = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5899415}, howpublished = {refereed} }

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