GC Gene Polymorphism and Unbound Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Related to the Risk of Insulin Resistance in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. Mateos-Muñoz, B., García-Martín, E., Torrejón, M. J., Devesa-Medina, M. J., Esguevillas, G., Cárdenas, M. C., Fernández, C., Carballo, M., Agúndez, J. A., & Ladero, J. M. Medicine, 95(10):e3019, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Insulin resistance (IR) is found in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) more frequently than in other chronic liver diseases.Prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate a wide multitest panel to identify factors related with IR in CHC and their possible interactions.In 76 patients with CHC we performed a series of routine laboratory analysis as well as specifically designed serum biochemical tests [retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), 25-OH vitamin D, Vitamin E, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cystatin C]. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 GC-DBP (group-specific component-Vitamin D-binding protein), rs738409 PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), and rs12979860 IL28B (interleukin-28 B) genes were determined. Insulin sensitivity was established with the HOMA-IR and IR was diagnosed when HOMA-IR \textgreater 3. Fibrosis staging was assessed with liver biopsy or transient elastography.After backward logistic regression analysis, independent variables associated with IR were Gc1s/Gc1s DBP phenotype, that results from the homozygous carriage of the rs7041G/rs4588C haplotype (P = 0.033); low retinol/RBP4 ratio, reflecting a greater rate of unbound RBP4 (P = 0.005); older age (P = 0.01); high serum tryglicerides (P = 0.026); and advanced (F3-F4) fibrosis stage. The AUROC provided by the multivariate model was 0.950 (95% CI = 0.906-0.993).In addition to previously known ones, the Gc1s/Gc1s phenotype variant of DBP and the unbound fraction of plasma RBP4 may be considered as factors related with the incidence, and possibly the risk, of IR in CHC patients.
@article{mateos-munoz_gc_2016,
	title = {{GC} {Gene} {Polymorphism} and {Unbound} {Serum} {Retinol}-{Binding} {Protein} 4 {Are} {Related} to the {Risk} of {Insulin} {Resistance} in {Patients} {With} {Chronic} {Hepatitis} {C}: {A} {Prospective} {Cross}-{Sectional} {Study}},
	volume = {95},
	issn = {1536-5964},
	shorttitle = {{GC} {Gene} {Polymorphism} and {Unbound} {Serum} {Retinol}-{Binding} {Protein} 4 {Are} {Related} to the {Risk} of {Insulin} {Resistance} in {Patients} {With} {Chronic} {Hepatitis} {C}},
	doi = {10.1097/MD.0000000000003019},
	abstract = {Insulin resistance (IR) is found in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) more frequently than in other chronic liver diseases.Prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate a wide multitest panel to identify factors related with IR in CHC and their possible interactions.In 76 patients with CHC we performed a series of routine laboratory analysis as well as specifically designed serum biochemical tests [retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), 25-OH vitamin D, Vitamin E, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cystatin C]. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 GC-DBP (group-specific component-Vitamin D-binding protein), rs738409 PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), and rs12979860 IL28B (interleukin-28 B) genes were determined. Insulin sensitivity was established with the HOMA-IR and IR was diagnosed when HOMA-IR {\textgreater} 3. Fibrosis staging was assessed with liver biopsy or transient elastography.After backward logistic regression analysis, independent variables associated with IR were Gc1s/Gc1s DBP phenotype, that results from the homozygous carriage of the rs7041G/rs4588C haplotype (P = 0.033); low retinol/RBP4 ratio, reflecting a greater rate of unbound RBP4 (P = 0.005); older age (P = 0.01); high serum tryglicerides (P = 0.026); and advanced (F3-F4) fibrosis stage. The AUROC provided by the multivariate model was 0.950 (95\% CI = 0.906-0.993).In addition to previously known ones, the Gc1s/Gc1s phenotype variant of DBP and the unbound fraction of plasma RBP4 may be considered as factors related with the incidence, and possibly the risk, of IR in CHC patients.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {10},
	journal = {Medicine},
	author = {Mateos-Muñoz, Beatriz and García-Martín, Elena and Torrejón, María J. and Devesa-Medina, María J. and Esguevillas, Gara and Cárdenas, María C. and Fernández, Cristina and Carballo, Miguel and Agúndez, José A. and Ladero, José M.},
	year = {2016},
	pmid = {26962819},
	keywords = {Article},
	pages = {e3019},
}
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