Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's From Physiological Wearables: An Exploratory Study. Mazilu, S.; Calatroni, A.; Gazit, E.; Mirelman, A.; Hausdorff, J., M.; and Troster, G. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 19(6):1843-1854, IEEE, 11, 2015.
Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's From Physiological Wearables: An Exploratory Study [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Freezing of gait (FoG) is a common gait impairment among patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. FoG is associated with falls and negatively impacts the patient's quality of life. Wearable systems that detect FoG in real time have been developed to help patients resume walking by means of rhythmic cueing. Current methods focus on detection, which require FoG events to happen first, while their prediction opens the road to preemptive cueing, which might help subjects to avoid freeze altogether. We analyzed electrocardiography (ECG) and skin-conductance (SC) data from 11 subjects who experience FoG in daily life, and found statistically significant changes in ECG and SC data just before the FoG episodes, compared to normal walking. Based on these findings, we developed an anomaly-based algorithm for predicting gait freeze from relevant SC features. We were able to predict 71.3% from 184 FoG with an average of 4.2 s before a freeze episode happened. Our findings enable the possibility of wearable systems, which predict with few seconds before an upcoming FoG from SC, and start external cues to help the user avoid the gait freeze.
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 title = {Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's From Physiological Wearables: An Exploratory Study},
 type = {article},
 year = {2015},
 identifiers = {[object Object]},
 keywords = {healthcare,mhealth,mhealth-examples,parkinson,wearable},
 pages = {1843-1854},
 volume = {19},
 websites = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jbhi.2015.2465134},
 month = {11},
 publisher = {IEEE},
 institution = {Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, ETH Z??rich, Zürich, Switzerland},
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 abstract = {Freezing of gait (FoG) is a common gait impairment among patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. FoG is associated with falls and negatively impacts the patient's quality of life. Wearable systems that detect FoG in real time have been developed to help patients resume walking by means of rhythmic cueing. Current methods focus on detection, which require FoG events to happen first, while their prediction opens the road to preemptive cueing, which might help subjects to avoid freeze altogether. We analyzed electrocardiography (ECG) and skin-conductance (SC) data from 11 subjects who experience FoG in daily life, and found statistically significant changes in ECG and SC data just before the FoG episodes, compared to normal walking. Based on these findings, we developed an anomaly-based algorithm for predicting gait freeze from relevant SC features. We were able to predict 71.3% from 184 FoG with an average of 4.2 s before a freeze episode happened. Our findings enable the possibility of wearable systems, which predict with few seconds before an upcoming FoG from SC, and start external cues to help the user avoid the gait freeze.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Mazilu, Sinziana and Calatroni, Alberto and Gazit, Eran and Mirelman, Anat and Hausdorff, Jeffrey M and Troster, Gerhard},
 journal = {IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics},
 number = {6}
}
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