Retooling Poverty Targeting Using Out-of-Sample Validation and Machine Learning. McBride, L. & Nichols, A. The World Bank Economic Review, 10, 2016.
Retooling Poverty Targeting Using Out-of-Sample Validation and Machine Learning [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Proxy means test (PMT) poverty targeting tools have become common tools for beneficiary targeting and poverty assessment where full means tests are costly. Currently popular estimation procedures for generating these tools prioritize minimization of in-sample prediction errors; however, the objective in generating such tools is out-of-sample prediction. We present evidence that prioritizing minimal out-of-sample error, identified through cross-validation and stochastic ensemble methods, in PMT tool development can substantially improve the out-of-sample performance of these targeting tools. We take the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) poverty assessment tool and base data for demonstration of these methods; however, the methods applied in this paper should be considered for PMT and other poverty-targeting tool development more broadly.
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 title = {Retooling Poverty Targeting Using Out-of-Sample Validation and Machine Learning},
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 year = {2016},
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 month = {10},
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 abstract = {Proxy means test (PMT) poverty targeting tools have become common tools for beneficiary targeting and poverty assessment where full means tests are costly. Currently popular estimation procedures for generating these tools prioritize minimization of in-sample prediction errors; however, the objective in generating such tools is out-of-sample prediction. We present evidence that prioritizing minimal out-of-sample error, identified through cross-validation and stochastic ensemble methods, in PMT tool development can substantially improve the out-of-sample performance of these targeting tools. We take the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) poverty assessment tool and base data for demonstration of these methods; however, the methods applied in this paper should be considered for PMT and other poverty-targeting tool development more broadly.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {McBride, Linden and Nichols, Austin},
 journal = {The World Bank Economic Review}
}
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