Chronic Stress Increases Prefrontal Inhibition: A Mechanism for Stress-Induced Prefrontal Dysfunction. McKlveen, J. M., Morano, R. L., Fitzgerald, M., Zoubovsky, S., Cassella, S. N., Scheimann, J. R., Ghosal, S., Mahbod, P., Packard, B. A., Myers, B., Baccei, M. L., & Herman, J. P. Biological Psychiatry, 80(10):754--764, November, 2016.
Chronic Stress Increases Prefrontal Inhibition: A Mechanism for Stress-Induced Prefrontal Dysfunction [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Background Multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g., depression, are linked to imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and prefrontal cortical dysfunction, and are concomitant with chronic stress. Methods We used electrophysiologic (n = 5–6 animals, 21–25 cells/group), neuroanatomic (n = 6–8/group), and behavioral (n = 12/group) techniques to test the hypothesis that chronic stress increases inhibition of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamatergic output neurons. Results Using patch clamp recordings from infralimbic mPFC pyramidal neurons, we found that chronic stress selectively increases the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents with no effect on amplitude, which suggests that chronic stress increases presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid release. Elevated gamma-aminobutyric acid release under chronic stress is accompanied by increased inhibitory appositions and terminals onto glutamatergic cells, as assessed by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Furthermore, chronic stress decreases glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity specifically in a subset of inhibitory neurons, which suggests that increased inhibitory tone in the mPFC after chronic stress may be caused by loss of a glucocorticoid receptor–mediated brake on interneuron activity. These neuroanatomic and functional changes are associated with impairment of a prefrontal-mediated behavior. During chronic stress, rats initially make significantly more errors in the delayed spatial win-shift task, an mPFC-mediated behavior, which suggests a diminished impact of the mPFC on decision making. Conclusions Taken together, the data suggest that chronic stress increases synaptic inhibition onto prefrontal glutamatergic output neurons, limiting the influence of the prefrontal cortex in control of stress reactivity and behavior. Thus, these data provide a mechanistic link among chronic stress, prefrontal cortical hypofunction, and behavioral dysfunction.
@article{mcklveen_chronic_2016,
	series = {Stress, {Fear}, and {Anxiety}},
	title = {Chronic {Stress} {Increases} {Prefrontal} {Inhibition}: {A} {Mechanism} for {Stress}-{Induced} {Prefrontal} {Dysfunction}},
	volume = {80},
	issn = {0006-3223},
	shorttitle = {Chronic {Stress} {Increases} {Prefrontal} {Inhibition}},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000632231632234X},
	doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.03.2101},
	abstract = {Background
Multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g., depression, are linked to imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and prefrontal cortical dysfunction, and are concomitant with chronic stress.
Methods
We used electrophysiologic (n = 5–6 animals, 21–25 cells/group), neuroanatomic (n = 6–8/group), and behavioral (n = 12/group) techniques to test the hypothesis that chronic stress increases inhibition of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamatergic output neurons.
Results
Using patch clamp recordings from infralimbic mPFC pyramidal neurons, we found that chronic stress selectively increases the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents with no effect on amplitude, which suggests that chronic stress increases presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid release. Elevated gamma-aminobutyric acid release under chronic stress is accompanied by increased inhibitory appositions and terminals onto glutamatergic cells, as assessed by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Furthermore, chronic stress decreases glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity specifically in a subset of inhibitory neurons, which suggests that increased inhibitory tone in the mPFC after chronic stress may be caused by loss of a glucocorticoid receptor–mediated brake on interneuron activity. These neuroanatomic and functional changes are associated with impairment of a prefrontal-mediated behavior. During chronic stress, rats initially make significantly more errors in the delayed spatial win-shift task, an mPFC-mediated behavior, which suggests a diminished impact of the mPFC on decision making.
Conclusions
Taken together, the data suggest that chronic stress increases synaptic inhibition onto prefrontal glutamatergic output neurons, limiting the influence of the prefrontal cortex in control of stress reactivity and behavior. Thus, these data provide a mechanistic link among chronic stress, prefrontal cortical hypofunction, and behavioral dysfunction.},
	number = {10},
	urldate = {2018-04-20TZ},
	journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
	author = {McKlveen, Jessica M. and Morano, Rachel L. and Fitzgerald, Maureen and Zoubovsky, Sandra and Cassella, Sarah N. and Scheimann, Jessie R. and Ghosal, Sriparna and Mahbod, Parinaz and Packard, Benjamin A. and Myers, Brent and Baccei, Mark L. and Herman, James P.},
	month = nov,
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {Chronic variable stress, GABA, Glucocorticoid receptor, Prefrontal cortex, Stress, mIPSC},
	pages = {754--764}
}
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