Impact of Education on Memory Deficits in Subclinical Depression. McLaren, M. E.; Szymkowicz, S. M.; Kirton, J. W.; and Dotson, V. M. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30(5):387–393, August, 2015.
Impact of Education on Memory Deficits in Subclinical Depression [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive deficits, while higher education protects against cognitive decline. This study was conducted to test if education level moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Seventy-three healthy, dementia-free adults aged 18–81 completed neuropsychological tests, as well as depression and anxiety questionnaires. Controlling for age, sex, and state anxiety, we found a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and education for immediate and delayed verbal memory, such that those with a higher education level performed well regardless of depressive symptomatology, whereas those with lower education and high depressive symptoms had worse performance. No effects were found for executive functioning or processing speed. Results suggest that education protects against verbal memory deficits in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. Further research on cognitive reserve in depression-related cognitive deficits and decline is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon.
@article{mclaren_impact_2015,
	title = {Impact of {Education} on {Memory} {Deficits} in {Subclinical} {Depression}},
	volume = {30},
	issn = {0887-6177, 1873-5843},
	url = {http://acn.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/5/387},
	doi = {10.1093/arclin/acv038},
	abstract = {Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive deficits, while higher education protects against cognitive decline. This study was conducted to test if education level moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Seventy-three healthy, dementia-free adults aged 18–81 completed neuropsychological tests, as well as depression and anxiety questionnaires. Controlling for age, sex, and state anxiety, we found a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and education for immediate and delayed verbal memory, such that those with a higher education level performed well regardless of depressive symptomatology, whereas those with lower education and high depressive symptoms had worse performance. No effects were found for executive functioning or processing speed. Results suggest that education protects against verbal memory deficits in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. Further research on cognitive reserve in depression-related cognitive deficits and decline is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon.},
	language = {en},
	number = {5},
	urldate = {2016-11-24TZ},
	journal = {Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology},
	author = {McLaren, Molly E. and Szymkowicz, Sarah M. and Kirton, Joshua W. and Dotson, Vonetta M.},
	month = aug,
	year = {2015},
	keywords = {Cognition, Cognitive reserve, Depressive symptoms, Educational achievement, Memory},
	pages = {387--393}
}
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