Rice straw for bioenergy: The effectiveness of policymaking and implementation in Asia. McLaughlin, O., Mawhood, B., Jamieson, C., & Slade, R. In volume 2016, pages 1540–1555, 2016.
Rice straw for bioenergy: The effectiveness of policymaking and implementation in Asia [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Globally, rice straw is the third largest agricultural residue, behind sugarcane bagasse and maize straw. Approximately one billion tonnes of rice straw are produced annually, but only a small proportion of this is used. The primary management strategies of rice straw farmers are burning in the fields and mulching. Burning produces harmful carcinogenic and greenhouse gas emissions and mulching releases high levels of methane which have an even greater greenhouse gas effect than the CO2 released from burning. In comparison, using rice straw for bioenergy has considerable advantages. This study examines the barriers to the use of rice straw for bioenergy, and the effectiveness of the existing policy mechanisms in seven major rice producing nations: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Data on policy effectiveness was obtained from semi-structured interviews with experts on rice straw use, based at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) based in the Philippines. This was combined with a detailed evaluation of existing government policies and a ranking exercise to identify which policy aspects were considered most successful to prohibit burning and encourage bioenergy use. Barriers to the widespread use of rice straw which can be categorised into biochemical, logistical and infrastructural. The biochemical barriers include the low nutritive quality, high lignin and silica content which complicates the breaking down of rice straw into its useful components. The logistical barriers are the wide dispersal of rice straw and intra-annual fluctuations in availability and the resulting issues created in transporting the resource in sufficient quantity to where it can be utilised at the right time. The final group of barriers include the cultural practices of rice straw farmers, fossil fuel subsidies skewing the market and the support systems in place for conventional substitutes of rice straw products, such as the infrastructure in place to process and produce petroleum. Implementation is critical to policy success. Ineffective implementation was found to arise from a combination of factors including: institutional coordination issues, resource constraints, political interference, corruption and unintended consequences of policies. The interviews revealed that experts believed engaging with farmers in their rice straw management was the most important form of intervention a government could pursue. Every nation shows some evidence of attempting to engage farmers but efforts are sporadic and mainly left to agricultural extension workers to pursue. © 2016 ETA-Florence Renewable Energies.
@inproceedings{mclaughlin_rice_2016,
	title = {Rice straw for bioenergy: {The} effectiveness of policymaking and implementation in {Asia}},
	volume = {2016},
	url = {https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85019709787&partnerID=40&md5=c47cbac0a6464d4eedb1070aed5bfba1},
	abstract = {Globally, rice straw is the third largest agricultural residue, behind sugarcane bagasse and maize straw. Approximately one billion tonnes of rice straw are produced annually, but only a small proportion of this is used. The primary management strategies of rice straw farmers are burning in the fields and mulching. Burning produces harmful carcinogenic and greenhouse gas emissions and mulching releases high levels of methane which have an even greater greenhouse gas effect than the CO2 released from burning. In comparison, using rice straw for bioenergy has considerable advantages. This study examines the barriers to the use of rice straw for bioenergy, and the effectiveness of the existing policy mechanisms in seven major rice producing nations: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Data on policy effectiveness was obtained from semi-structured interviews with experts on rice straw use, based at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) based in the Philippines. This was combined with a detailed evaluation of existing government policies and a ranking exercise to identify which policy aspects were considered most successful to prohibit burning and encourage bioenergy use. Barriers to the widespread use of rice straw which can be categorised into biochemical, logistical and infrastructural. The biochemical barriers include the low nutritive quality, high lignin and silica content which complicates the breaking down of rice straw into its useful components. The logistical barriers are the wide dispersal of rice straw and intra-annual fluctuations in availability and the resulting issues created in transporting the resource in sufficient quantity to where it can be utilised at the right time. The final group of barriers include the cultural practices of rice straw farmers, fossil fuel subsidies skewing the market and the support systems in place for conventional substitutes of rice straw products, such as the infrastructure in place to process and produce petroleum. Implementation is critical to policy success. Ineffective implementation was found to arise from a combination of factors including: institutional coordination issues, resource constraints, political interference, corruption and unintended consequences of policies. The interviews revealed that experts believed engaging with farmers in their rice straw management was the most important form of intervention a government could pursue. Every nation shows some evidence of attempting to engage farmers but efforts are sporadic and mainly left to agricultural extension workers to pursue. © 2016 ETA-Florence Renewable Energies.},
	author = {McLaughlin, O. and Mawhood, B. and Jamieson, C. and Slade, R.},
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {Agricultural residues, Asia, Bioenergy, Policy, Rice straw},
	pages = {1540--1555}
}
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