Cholecystokinin and pain: a review. McRoberts, J W Anesthesia progress, 33(2):87–90, 1986. PMC2175459
Cholecystokinin and pain: a review [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The recent discovery that cholecystokinin (CCK) is present in the nervous system has prompted studies that have nearly proven its neurotransmitter status. Pain modulation appears to be a major effect of CCK and proglumide, its antagonist. CCK's inhibitory effect and proglumide's potentiating effect on opiate analgesia may have clinical application; proglumide's inhibitory effect on opiate tolerance may help in management of chronic pain. More research is required before the CCK/opiate interaction can be exploited on a large scale to relieve pain.
@article{mcroberts_cholecystokinin_1986,
	title = {Cholecystokinin and pain: a review},
	volume = {33},
	issn = {0003-3006},
	url = {https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2872841},
	abstract = {The recent discovery that cholecystokinin (CCK) is present in the nervous system has prompted studies that have nearly proven its neurotransmitter status. Pain modulation appears to be a major effect of CCK and proglumide, its antagonist. CCK's inhibitory effect and proglumide's potentiating effect on opiate analgesia may have clinical application; proglumide's inhibitory effect on opiate tolerance may help in management of chronic pain. More research is required before the CCK/opiate interaction can be exploited on a large scale to relieve pain.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {2},
	journal = {Anesthesia progress},
	author = {McRoberts, J W},
	year = {1986},
	note = {PMC2175459},
	keywords = {CCK, Humans, Neurotransmitter, Pain, Periaqueductal Gray, Proglumide, Review, antiopioid effect, nociception, opiate tolerance},
	pages = {87--90},
}

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