Using HIV Sequence and Epidemiologic Data to Assess the Effect of Self-referral Testing for Acute HIV Infection on Incident Diagnoses in San Diego, California. Mehta, S. R., Murrell, B., Anderson, C. M., Kosakovsky Pond, S. L., Wertheim, J. O., Young, J. A., Freitas, L., Richman, D. D., Mathews, W. C., Scheffler, K., Little, S. J., & Smith, D. M. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 63(1):101–107, 2016.
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BACKGROUND: Because recently infected individuals disproportionately contribute to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we evaluated the impact of a primary HIV screening program (the Early Test) implemented in San Diego. METHODS: The Early Test program used combined nucleic acid and serology testing to screen for primary infection targeting local high-risk individuals. Epidemiologic, HIV sequence, and geographic data were obtained from the San Diego County Department of Public Health and the Early Test program. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine whether the Early Test program was temporally and geographically associated with changes in incident HIV diagnoses. Transmission chains were inferred by phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. RESULTS: Over time, a decrease in incident HIV diagnoses was observed proportional to the number primary HIV infections diagnosed in each San Diego region (P \textless .001). Molecular network analyses also showed that transmission chains were more likely to terminate in regions where the program was marketed (P = .002). Although, individuals in these zip codes had infection diagnosed earlier (P = .08), they were not treated earlier (P = .83). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggests that early HIV diagnoses by this primary infection screening program probably contributed to the observed decrease in new HIV diagnoses in San Diego, and they support the expansion and evaluation of similar programs.
@article{mehta_using_2016,
	title = {Using {HIV} {Sequence} and {Epidemiologic} {Data} to {Assess} the {Effect} of {Self}-referral {Testing} for {Acute} {HIV} {Infection} on {Incident} {Diagnoses} in {San} {Diego}, {California}},
	volume = {63},
	issn = {1537-6591},
	doi = {10.1093/cid/ciw161},
	abstract = {BACKGROUND: Because recently infected individuals disproportionately contribute to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we evaluated the impact of a primary HIV screening program (the Early Test) implemented in San Diego.
METHODS: The Early Test program used combined nucleic acid and serology testing to screen for primary infection targeting local high-risk individuals. Epidemiologic, HIV sequence, and geographic data were obtained from the San Diego County Department of Public Health and the Early Test program. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine whether the Early Test program was temporally and geographically associated with changes in incident HIV diagnoses. Transmission chains were inferred by phylogenetic analysis of sequence data.
RESULTS: Over time, a decrease in incident HIV diagnoses was observed proportional to the number primary HIV infections diagnosed in each San Diego region (P {\textless} .001). Molecular network analyses also showed that transmission chains were more likely to terminate in regions where the program was marketed (P = .002). Although, individuals in these zip codes had infection diagnosed earlier (P = .08), they were not treated earlier (P = .83).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggests that early HIV diagnoses by this primary infection screening program probably contributed to the observed decrease in new HIV diagnoses in San Diego, and they support the expansion and evaluation of similar programs.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {1},
	journal = {Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America},
	author = {Mehta, Sanjay R. and Murrell, Ben and Anderson, Christy M. and Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L. and Wertheim, Joel O. and Young, Jason A. and Freitas, Lorri and Richman, Douglas D. and Mathews, W. Chris and Scheffler, Konrad and Little, Susan J. and Smith, Davey M.},
	year = {2016},
	pmid = {27174704},
	pmcid = {PMC4901863},
	keywords = {Adult, California, Female, HIV Infections, HIV diagnostic tests, HIV-1, Humans, Incidence, Male, Mass Screening, Molecular Epidemiology, Phylogeny, Phylogeography, Referral and Consultation, Sequence Analysis, RNA, incidence, models/projections, molecular epidemiology, prevention of sexual transmission},
	pages = {101--107}
}
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