Imaging assessment of patellar instability and its treatment in children and adolescents. Meyers, A. B., Laor, T., Sharafinski, M., & Zbojniewicz, A. M. Pediatric radiology, 46(5):618--636, May, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Transient patellar dislocation is a common entity in children and adolescents, characterized by lateral dislocation of the patella, usually with spontaneous reduction. Many predisposing conditions have been described, including trochlear dysplasia, excessive lateral patellar tilt, patella alta and lateralization of the tibial tuberosity. Associated injuries are bone bruises of the patella and lateral femoral condyle, tears of the medial retinaculum that include the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), tears of the vastus medialis obliquus muscle, injuries of articular cartilage, and intra-articular bodies. Children who are refractory to conservative management, have a large cartilage defect, or are at substantial risk for recurrent dislocations are candidates for surgical procedures to prevent future dislocations. Procedures can include MPFL repair or reconstruction, tibial tubercle repositioning and lateral retinacular release. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the imaging findings of transient patellar dislocation in the acute setting, the normal imaging appearance after surgical intervention, and post-surgical complications.
@article{meyers_imaging_2016,
	title = {Imaging assessment of patellar instability and its treatment in children and adolescents.},
	volume = {46},
	issn = {1432-1998 0301-0449},
	doi = {10.1007/s00247-015-3520-8},
	abstract = {Transient patellar dislocation is a common entity in children and adolescents, characterized by lateral dislocation of the patella, usually with spontaneous reduction. Many predisposing conditions have been described, including trochlear  dysplasia, excessive lateral patellar tilt, patella alta and lateralization of the tibial tuberosity. Associated injuries are bone bruises of the patella and lateral femoral condyle, tears of the medial retinaculum that include the medial  patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), tears of the vastus medialis obliquus muscle, injuries of articular cartilage, and intra-articular bodies. Children who are refractory to conservative management, have a large cartilage defect, or are at substantial risk for recurrent dislocations are candidates for surgical procedures to prevent future dislocations. Procedures can include MPFL repair or  reconstruction, tibial tubercle repositioning and lateral retinacular release. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the imaging findings of transient patellar dislocation in the acute setting, the normal imaging appearance after surgical intervention, and post-surgical complications.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {5},
	journal = {Pediatric radiology},
	author = {Meyers, Arthur B. and Laor, Tal and Sharafinski, Mark and Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.},
	month = may,
	year = {2016},
	pmid = {26860094},
	keywords = {Adolescent, Child, Children, Computed tomography, Humans, Joint Instability/*diagnostic imaging/surgery, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medial patellofemoral ligament, Orthopedic Procedures, Patellar Dislocation/*diagnostic imaging/surgery, Patellar instability, Patellar tracking, Radiography, Tibial tubercle, Transient patellar dislocation},
	pages = {618--636}
}
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