Exploring sex differences in diets and activity patterns through dental and skeletal studies in populations from ancient Corinth, Greece. Michael, D. E., Eliopoulos, C., & Manolis, S. K. HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology.
Exploring sex differences in diets and activity patterns through dental and skeletal studies in populations from ancient Corinth, Greece [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Sex and temporal differences are assessed in relation to dietary habits and activity patterns in three ancient populations from Corinth, Greece. The skeletal sample spans time from the Geometric to the Early Byzantine Period (9th c. BCE-5th c. CE). Dental caries and tooth wear have been proven to be reliable dietary indicators. Similarly, spinal osteoarthritis, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl's nodes, have been used to infer activity patterns. A total of 727 teeth and 676 vertebrae surfaces were examined, from 46 individuals. The entire sample presents a caries rate of 6.1%, and males exhibit a much higher caries frequency than females. Males also exhibit significantly more tooth wear than females, which could be the causative factor of the caries rate difference between the sexes. Furthermore, males show significantly higher rates of osteophyte formation (16.5% vs.7.6%) and Schmorl's nodes than females. On the contrary, no significant differences were noted between the sexes in facet remodeling and osteoarthritis. However, the distribution of facet remodeling along the spine may indicate a possible gender division of labor. Finally, two important positive correlations have been found for the first time to our knowledge: one between facet remodeling and osteophytes, and one between Schmorl's nodes and facet remodelling, thus we cautiously propose the study of the aforementioned correlations, as indicators of intense physical activity in past or even modern populations. Finally, even though time-based differences regarding diet could not be established, temporal variations were found in relation to activity patterns.
@article{michael_exploring_nodate,
	title = {Exploring sex differences in diets and activity patterns through dental and skeletal studies in populations from ancient {Corinth}, {Greece}},
	issn = {0018-442X},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0018442X1730046X},
	doi = {10.1016/j.jchb.2017.09.002},
	abstract = {Sex and temporal differences are assessed in relation to dietary habits and activity patterns in three ancient populations from Corinth, Greece. The skeletal sample spans time from the Geometric to the Early Byzantine Period (9th c. BCE-5th c. CE). Dental caries and tooth wear have been proven to be reliable dietary indicators. Similarly, spinal osteoarthritis, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl's nodes, have been used to infer activity patterns.
A total of 727 teeth and 676 vertebrae surfaces were examined, from 46 individuals. The entire sample presents a caries rate of 6.1\%, and males exhibit a much higher caries frequency than females. Males also exhibit significantly more tooth wear than females, which could be the causative factor of the caries rate difference between the sexes. Furthermore, males show significantly higher rates of osteophyte formation (16.5\% vs.7.6\%) and Schmorl's nodes than females. On the contrary, no significant differences were noted between the sexes in facet remodeling and osteoarthritis. However, the distribution of facet remodeling along the spine may indicate a possible gender division of labor. Finally, two important positive correlations have been found for the first time to our knowledge: one between facet remodeling and osteophytes, and one between Schmorl's nodes and facet remodelling, thus we cautiously propose the study of the aforementioned correlations, as indicators of intense physical activity in past or even modern populations. Finally, even though time-based differences regarding diet could not be established, temporal variations were found in relation to activity patterns.},
	journal = {HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology},
	author = {Michael, D. E. and Eliopoulos, C. and Manolis, S. K.}
}

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