A Limb Compliant Sensing Strategy for Robot Collision Reaction. Miyata, C., Chisholm, K., Baba, J., & Ahmadi, M. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 21(2):674–682, April, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
This paper introduces a compliant limb sensor (CLS) concept for collision detection during robot-human contact. The CLS consists of an external rigid shell compliantly connected to the robot link with collision inferred from measured shell displacements. Measuring displacement of a rigid shell allows customizable compliance and high sampling rates due to the small number of required sensors. The proposed sensor is prototyped for the planar case using LED/light-to-voltage (LTV) sensors for shell pose measurement and foam as the compliant link between the shell and base. A physically motivated model for the output of LED/LTV sensor pairs is formulated for the estimation of the shell pose. Voltage measurements of redundant LTVs and a calibrated shell model are used with an iterative optimization routine to estimate the shell pose at high frequencies. Sensor performance is tested using five trajectories: rest, compression, shear, rotation, and arbitrary motion. Experiments confirmed that the CLS can sense the presence, direction, and intensity of impact. The potential application of the proposed sensor to safety in physical human-robot interaction is discussed. The novel sensing methodology also enables a new method of 3-D human-computer interaction due to the ability to modify the compliance and operating range of the CLS.
@article{miyata_limb_2016,
	title = {A {Limb} {Compliant} {Sensing} {Strategy} for {Robot} {Collision} {Reaction}},
	volume = {21},
	issn = {1083-4435},
	doi = {10.1109/TMECH.2015.2496553},
	abstract = {This paper introduces a compliant limb sensor (CLS) concept for collision detection during robot-human contact. The CLS consists of an external rigid shell compliantly connected to the robot link with collision inferred from measured shell displacements. Measuring displacement of a rigid shell allows customizable compliance and high sampling rates due to the small number of required sensors. The proposed sensor is prototyped for the planar case using LED/light-to-voltage (LTV) sensors for shell pose measurement and foam as the compliant link between the shell and base. A physically motivated model for the output of LED/LTV sensor pairs is formulated for the estimation of the shell pose. Voltage measurements of redundant LTVs and a calibrated shell model are used with an iterative optimization routine to estimate the shell pose at high frequencies. Sensor performance is tested using five trajectories: rest, compression, shear, rotation, and arbitrary motion. Experiments confirmed that the CLS can sense the presence, direction, and intensity of impact. The potential application of the proposed sensor to safety in physical human-robot interaction is discussed. The novel sensing methodology also enables a new method of 3-D human-computer interaction due to the ability to modify the compliance and operating range of the CLS.},
	number = {2},
	journal = {IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics},
	author = {Miyata, C. and Chisholm, K. and Baba, J. and Ahmadi, M.},
	month = apr,
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {3D human-computer interaction, CLS, LED/LTV sensor pairs, LED/light-to-voltage sensors, Robot sensing systems, Safety, arbitrary motion trajectory, calibrated shell model, collision avoidance, collision detection, compliance rates, compliant limb sensor, compliant mechanisms, compression trajectory, displacement measurement, external rigid shell, human-robot interaction, iterative methods, iterative optimization, light emitting diodes, limb compliant sensing strategy, optimisation, redundant LTV, rest trajectory, robot collision reaction, robot link, robot-human contact, rotation trajectory, sampling rates, sensor performance testing, shear modulus, shear trajectory, shell displacement measurement, shell pose measurement, shells (structures), voltage measurement},
	pages = {674--682}
}
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