Toward Topologically Based Upper Bounds on the Number of Power Flow Solutions. Molzahn, D. K., Mehta, D., & Niemerg, M. In American Control Conference (ACC), pages 5927-5932, July, 2016. Best presentation in session award
Toward Topologically Based Upper Bounds on the Number of Power Flow Solutions [pdf]Paper  Toward Topologically Based Upper Bounds on the Number of Power Flow Solutions [link]Link  Toward Topologically Based Upper Bounds on the Number of Power Flow Solutions [link]Arxiv  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The power flow equations, which relate power injections and voltage phasors, are at the heart of many electric power system computations. While Newton-based methods typically find the "high-voltage" solution to the power flow equations, which is of primary interest, there are potentially many "low-voltage" solutions that are useful for certain analyses. This paper addresses the number of solutions to the power flow equations. There exist upper bounds on the number of power flow solutions; however, there is only limited work regarding bounds that are functions of network topology. This paper empirically explores the relationship between the network topology, as characterized by the maximal cliques, and the number of power flow solutions. To facilitate this analysis, we use a numerical polynomial homotopy continuation approach that is guaranteed to find all complex solutions to the power flow equations. The number of solutions obtained from this approach upper bounds the number of real solutions. Testing with many small networks informs the development of upper bounds that are functions of the network topology. Initial results include empirically derived expressions for the maximum number of solutions for certain classes of network topologies.
@inproceedings{molzahn_mehta_niemerg-acc2016,
	author={D. K. Molzahn and D. Mehta and M. Niemerg},
	booktitle={American Control Conference (ACC)},
	title={{Toward Topologically Based Upper Bounds on the Number of Power Flow Solutions}},
	year={2016},
	pages={5927-5932},
	month={July},
	doi={10.1109/ACC.2016.7526599},
	bibbase_note={Best presentation in session award},
	keywords={Power Flow},
		abstract={The power flow equations, which relate power injections and voltage phasors, are at the heart of many electric power system computations. While Newton-based methods typically find the "high-voltage" solution to the power flow equations, which is of primary interest, there are potentially many "low-voltage" solutions that are useful for certain analyses. This paper addresses the number of solutions to the power flow equations. There exist upper bounds on the number of power flow solutions; however, there is only limited work regarding bounds that are functions of network topology. This paper empirically explores the relationship between the network topology, as characterized by the maximal cliques, and the number of power flow solutions. To facilitate this analysis, we use a numerical polynomial homotopy continuation approach that is guaranteed to find all complex solutions to the power flow equations. The number of solutions obtained from this approach upper bounds the number of real solutions. Testing with many small networks informs the development of upper bounds that are functions of the network topology. Initial results include empirically derived expressions for the maximum number of solutions for certain classes of network topologies.},
	url_Paper={molzahn_mehta_niemerg-acc2016.pdf},
	url_Link={http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7526599/},
	url_arXiv={https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.09227},
}
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