Decision Factors Nurses Use to Assess Pain in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia. Monroe, T., B.; Parish, A.; and Mion, L., C. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 29(5):316-320, 10, 2015.
abstract   bibtex   
Nurses caring for older people with various psychiatric illnesses face many obstacles when treating pain. One setting with a high percentage of psychiatric conditions is long-term care where more than half of residents have some form of dementia, and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSDs) may mimic behavioral displays of pain. Furthermore, two-thirds of nursing home residents have pain. Thus, many nursing home residents with dementia have pain that may be confounded by BSDs. Since many people with dementia are at risk for poor pain management, determining current methods in which nurses assess and manage pain in nursing home residents will aid in recognizing potential barriers to using current pain management guidelines and help develop strategies to enhance nurses' assessment and management of pain in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to explore nursing home nurses' cues and practices to identify and alleviate pain in nursing home residents with dementia. Nurses use the constructs of 'comfort' and 'quality of life' as key components in their overall pain assessment strategy in people with dementia. Indeed, the extensive process they use involving frequent reassessment and application of interventions is geared towards "appearance of comfort." Nurses reported difficulty in ascertaining whether a person with dementia was in pain, and they expressed further difficulty determining the intensity associated with resident pain. Nurses further reported that residents with dementia who are not well know by the staff were are greater risk of poor pain management. It was not unusual for nurses to discuss the importance of conflict resolution among family members as well as allowing for open expression of family's concerns. Nurses had to focus not only on the resident's comfort, but also the families' level of comfort with pain management, especially at the end-of-life. Findings support further use and development of discomfort behavior scales to help manage pain.
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 title = {Decision Factors Nurses Use to Assess Pain in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia},
 type = {article},
 year = {2015},
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 pages = {316-320},
 volume = {29},
 month = {10},
 city = {Vanderbilt University, 461 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37240, USA. Electronic address: todd.b.monroe@vanderbilt.edu.; Vanderbilt University, 461 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37240, USA. Electronic address: abby.parish@vanderbilt.edu.; Vanderbilt Univ},
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 notes = {LR: 20150928; CI: Published by Elsevier Inc.; GR: L30 AG045540/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States; JID: 8708534; NIHMS706084; OID: NLM: NIHMS706084 [Available on 10/01/16]; OID: NLM: PMC4580913 [Available on 10/01/16]; PMCR: 2016/10/01 00:00; 2015/03/07 [received]; 2015/05/05 [revised]; 2015/05/27 [accepted]; 2015/06/10 [aheadofprint]; ppublish},
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 abstract = {Nurses caring for older people with various psychiatric illnesses face many obstacles when treating pain. One setting with a high percentage of psychiatric conditions is long-term care where more than half of residents have some form of dementia, and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSDs) may mimic behavioral displays of pain. Furthermore, two-thirds of nursing home residents have pain. Thus, many nursing home residents with dementia have pain that may be confounded by BSDs. Since many people with dementia are at risk for poor pain management, determining current methods in which nurses assess and manage pain in nursing home residents will aid in recognizing potential barriers to using current pain management guidelines and help develop strategies to enhance nurses' assessment and management of pain in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to explore nursing home nurses' cues and practices to identify and alleviate pain in nursing home residents with dementia. Nurses use the constructs of 'comfort' and 'quality of life' as key components in their overall pain assessment strategy in people with dementia. Indeed, the extensive process they use involving frequent reassessment and application of interventions is geared towards "appearance of comfort." Nurses reported difficulty in ascertaining whether a person with dementia was in pain, and they expressed further difficulty determining the intensity associated with resident pain. Nurses further reported that residents with dementia who are not well know by the staff were are greater risk of poor pain management. It was not unusual for nurses to discuss the importance of conflict resolution among family members as well as allowing for open expression of family's concerns. Nurses had to focus not only on the resident's comfort, but also the families' level of comfort with pain management, especially at the end-of-life. Findings support further use and development of discomfort behavior scales to help manage pain.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Monroe, T B and Parish, A and Mion, L C},
 journal = {Archives of Psychiatric Nursing},
 number = {5}
}
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