Nomenclature for the Nameless: a Proposal for an Integrative Molecular Taxonomy of Cryptic Diversity Exemplified by Planktonic Foraminifera Raphaël. Morard, R., Escarguel, G., Weiner, A., K., M., André, A., Douady, C., J., Wade, C., M., Darling, K., F., Ujiié, Y., Seears, H., A., Quillévéré, F., Garidel-Thoron, T., d., Vargas, C., d., & Kucera, M. Systematic Biology, 2016.
Nomenclature for the Nameless: a Proposal for an Integrative Molecular Taxonomy of Cryptic Diversity Exemplified by Planktonic Foraminifera Raphaël [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Investigations of biodiversity, biogeography and ecological processes rely on the identification of “species” as biologically significant, natural units of evolution. In this context, morpho-taxonomy only provides an adequate level of resolution if reproductive isolation matches morphological divergence. In many groups of organisms, morphologically defined species often disguise considerable genetic diversity, which may be indicative of the existence of cryptic species. The diversity hidden by morphological species can be disentangled through genetic surveys, which also provide access to data on the ecological distribution of genetically circumscribed units. These units can be identified by unique DNA sequence motifs and allow studies of evolutionary and ecological processes at different levels of divergence. However, the nomenclature of genetically circumscribed units within morphological species is not regulated and lacks stability. This represents a major obstacle to efforts to synthesize and communicate data on genetic diversity for multiple stakeholders. We have been confronted with such an obstacle in our work on planktonic foraminifera, where the stakeholder community is particularly diverse, involving geochemists, paleoceanographers, paleontologists and biologists, and the lack of stable nomenclature beyond the level of formal morphospecies prevents effective transfer of knowledge. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a stable, reproducible and flexible nomenclature system for genetically circumscribed units, analogous to the principles of a formal nomenclature system. Our system is based on the definition of unique DNA sequence motifs collocated within an individual, their typification (in analogy with holotypes), utilization of their hierarchical phylogenetic structure to define levels of divergence below that of the morphospecies, and a set of nomenclature rules assuring stability. The resulting molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) remain outside the domain of current nomenclature codes, but are linked to formal morphospecies as regulated by the codes. Subsequently we show how this system can be applied to classify genetically defined units using the SSU rDNA marker in planktonic foraminifera and we highlight its potential use for other groups of organisms where similarly high levels of connectivity between molecular and formal taxonomies can be achieved.
@article{
 title = {Nomenclature for the Nameless: a Proposal for an Integrative Molecular Taxonomy of Cryptic Diversity Exemplified by Planktonic Foraminifera Raphaël},
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 year = {2016},
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 keywords = {MOTUs,Molecular nomenclature,cryptic species,genetic diversity,planktonic foraminifera},
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 websites = {http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/04/11/sysbio.syw031},
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 abstract = {Investigations of biodiversity, biogeography and ecological processes rely on the identification of “species” as biologically significant, natural units of evolution. In this context, morpho-taxonomy only provides an adequate level of resolution if reproductive isolation matches morphological divergence. In many groups of organisms, morphologically defined species often disguise considerable genetic diversity, which may be indicative of the existence of cryptic species. The diversity hidden by morphological species can be disentangled through genetic surveys, which also provide access to data on the ecological distribution of genetically circumscribed units. These units can be identified by unique DNA sequence motifs and allow studies of evolutionary and ecological processes at different levels of divergence. However, the nomenclature of genetically circumscribed units within morphological species is not regulated and lacks stability. This represents a major obstacle to efforts to synthesize and communicate data on genetic diversity for multiple stakeholders. We have been confronted with such an obstacle in our work on planktonic foraminifera, where the stakeholder community is particularly diverse, involving geochemists, paleoceanographers, paleontologists and biologists, and the lack of stable nomenclature beyond the level of formal morphospecies prevents effective transfer of knowledge. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a stable, reproducible and flexible nomenclature system for genetically circumscribed units, analogous to the principles of a formal nomenclature system. Our system is based on the definition of unique DNA sequence motifs collocated within an individual, their typification (in analogy with holotypes), utilization of their hierarchical phylogenetic structure to define levels of divergence below that of the morphospecies, and a set of nomenclature rules assuring stability. The resulting molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) remain outside the domain of current nomenclature codes, but are linked to formal morphospecies as regulated by the codes. Subsequently we show how this system can be applied to classify genetically defined units using the SSU rDNA marker in planktonic foraminifera and we highlight its potential use for other groups of organisms where similarly high levels of connectivity between molecular and formal taxonomies can be achieved.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Morard, Raphaël and Escarguel, Gilles and Weiner, Agnes K M and André, Aurore and Douady, Christophe J and Wade, Christopher M and Darling, Kate F and Ujiié, Yurika and Seears, Heidi A and Quillévéré, Frédéric and Garidel-Thoron, Thibault de and Vargas, Colomban de and Kucera, Michal},
 journal = {Systematic Biology},
 number = {April}
}
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