Tailoring the microstructure and the mechanical properties of ultrafine grained high strength ferritic steels by powder metallurgy. Mouawad, B.; Boulnat, X.; Fabrègue, D.; Perez, M.; and de Carlan, Y. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 465:54–62, October, 2015.
Tailoring the microstructure and the mechanical properties of ultrafine grained high strength ferritic steels by powder metallurgy [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Three model powder materials (i) atomized, (ii) atomized + milled, and, (iii) atomized + milled + alloyed with yttria (Y2O3) and titanium were consolidated within Spark Plasma Sintering device at 850, 950 and 1050°C. Depending on the materials, nanostructured, or even bimodal grain size distribution can be observed. These structures lead to a wide range of mechanical behavior: the tensile strength at room temperature can be tailored from 500 to 1200 MPa with total elongation from 8 to 35%. The bimodal grain size distribution is believed to provide both good yield stress and ductility. Finally, a yield stress model based on the effect of solute atoms, dislocations, grains boundaries and precipitates is presented and it permits to predict accurately the experimental values for all specimens and conditions.
@article{mouawad_tailoring_2015,
	title = {Tailoring the microstructure and the mechanical properties of ultrafine grained high strength ferritic steels by powder metallurgy},
	volume = {465},
	issn = {0022-3115},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311515003189},
	doi = {10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.05.053},
	abstract = {Three model powder materials (i) atomized, (ii) atomized + milled, and, (iii) atomized + milled + alloyed with yttria (Y2O3) and titanium were consolidated within Spark Plasma Sintering device at 850, 950 and 1050°C. Depending on the materials, nanostructured, or even bimodal grain size distribution can be observed. These structures lead to a wide range of mechanical behavior: the tensile strength at room temperature can be tailored from 500 to 1200 MPa with total elongation from 8 to 35\%. The bimodal grain size distribution is believed to provide both good yield stress and ductility. Finally, a yield stress model based on the effect of solute atoms, dislocations, grains boundaries and precipitates is presented and it permits to predict accurately the experimental values for all specimens and conditions.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2020-02-11},
	journal = {Journal of Nuclear Materials},
	author = {Mouawad, B. and Boulnat, X. and Fabrègue, D. and Perez, M. and de Carlan, Y.},
	month = oct,
	year = {2015},
	keywords = {EBSD, ODS steel, Powder metallurgy, Ultrafine grained steel, Yield strength model},
	pages = {54--62}
}
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