Assessing the biochemical changes of tendons of rats in an experimental model of tenotomy under therapeutic ultrasound and LEDs (625 and 945 nm) by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Moura Júnior, M. d. J.; Maia Filho, A. L. M.; Pessoa, D. R.; Alves, M. D. R.; Justino, J. d. S.; Andrade, M. D. S.; Rebêlo, A. M. G.; de Lima, C. J.; Pinheiro, A. L. B.; and Silveira, L. Lasers in Medical Science, 30(6):1729--1738, August, 2015.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Given the complexity of the tendon repair process, where the neoformed scar tissue tends to prevent or hamper the tendon from performing its normal functions, ultrasound (US) and light-emitting diode (LED) devices have been applied to modulate the tendon repair process. This study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and healing effects of therapeutic US and LED in an experimental model of tenotomy using histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy. Forty Wistar rats (235 ± 8.3 g) were separated into four groups: tenotomy (TC; control), tenotomy associated with ultrasound (US; 1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2)), tenotomy associated with LED at 625 nm (LR; 4 J/cm(2)), and tenotomy associated with LED at 945 nm (LIR; 4 J/cm(2)), in two experimental periods of 7 and 14 days. Histomorphometry showed a decrease of inflammatory cells (macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) for the group treated with US compared to the TC group (ANOVA, p \textless 0.0001) and the LIR group compared to the TC group (p \textless 0.05) at the seventh day, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. In relation to the LR and TC groups, there was no significant difference. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the LR group presented an increased synthesis of collagen I compared to the other treatments and the TC groups on the 14th day (p \textless 0.01). US therapy showed an adjuvant effect with anti-inflammatory action, and the LED therapy at 625 nm showed an increase in collagen synthesis, contributing to the process of tendon healing.
@article{moura_junior_assessing_2015,
	title = {Assessing the biochemical changes of tendons of rats in an experimental model of tenotomy under therapeutic ultrasound and {LEDs} (625 and 945 nm) by near-infrared {Raman} spectroscopy},
	volume = {30},
	issn = {1435-604X},
	doi = {10.1007/s10103-015-1779-5},
	abstract = {Given the complexity of the tendon repair process, where the neoformed scar tissue tends to prevent or hamper the tendon from performing its normal functions, ultrasound (US) and light-emitting diode (LED) devices have been applied to modulate the tendon repair process. This study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and healing effects of therapeutic US and LED in an experimental model of tenotomy using histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy. Forty Wistar rats (235 ± 8.3 g) were separated into four groups: tenotomy (TC; control), tenotomy associated with ultrasound (US; 1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2)), tenotomy associated with LED at 625 nm (LR; 4 J/cm(2)), and tenotomy associated with LED at 945 nm (LIR; 4 J/cm(2)), in two experimental periods of 7 and 14 days. Histomorphometry showed a decrease of inflammatory cells (macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) for the group treated with US compared to the TC group (ANOVA, p {\textless} 0.0001) and the LIR group compared to the TC group (p {\textless} 0.05) at the seventh day, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. In relation to the LR and TC groups, there was no significant difference. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the LR group presented an increased synthesis of collagen I compared to the other treatments and the TC groups on the 14th day (p {\textless} 0.01). US therapy showed an adjuvant effect with anti-inflammatory action, and the LED therapy at 625 nm showed an increase in collagen synthesis, contributing to the process of tendon healing.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {6},
	journal = {Lasers in Medical Science},
	author = {Moura Júnior, Manoel de Jesus and Maia Filho, Antonio Luís Martins and Pessoa, Diego Rodrigues and Alves, Marcos Danilo Rodrigues and Justino, Jefferson de Sousa and Andrade, Matheus Dos Santos and Rebêlo, Ana Maria Gonçalves and de Lima, Carlos José and Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa and Silveira, Landulfo},
	month = aug,
	year = {2015},
	pmid = {26100003},
	keywords = {Animals, Cell Count, Collagen, Inflammation, Light, Male, Models, Animal, Rats, Wistar, Spectrum Analysis, Raman, Tendons, Tenotomy, Ultrasonic Therapy},
	pages = {1729--1738}
}
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