Performance Evaluation of Smartphone Inertial Sensors Measurement for Range of Motion. Mourcou, Q.; Fleury, A.; Franco, C.; Klopcic, F.; and Vuillerme, N. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 15(9):23168-23187, September, 2015.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Over the years, smartphones have become tools for scientific and clinical research. They can, for instance, be used to assess range of motion and joint angle measurement. In this paper, our aim was to determine if smartphones are reliable and accurate enough for clinical motion research. This work proposes an evaluation of different smartphone sensors performance and different manufacturer algorithm performances with the comparison to the gold standard, an industrial robotic arm with an actual standard use inertial motion unit in clinical measurement, an Xsens product. Both dynamic and static protocols were used to perform these comparisons. Root Mean Square (RMS) mean values results for static protocol are under 0.3\textdegree for the different smartphones. RMS mean values results for dynamic protocol are more prone to bias induced by Euler angle representation. Statistical results prove that there are no filter effect on results for both protocols and no hardware effect. Smartphones performance can be compared to the Xsens gold standard for clinical research.
@article{Mourcou2015,
  title = {Performance {{Evaluation}} of {{Smartphone Inertial Sensors Measurement}} for {{Range}} of {{Motion}}},
  volume = {15},
  issn = {1424-8220},
  abstract = {Over the years, smartphones have become tools for scientific and clinical research. They can, for instance, be used to assess range of motion and joint angle measurement. In this paper, our aim was to determine if smartphones are reliable and accurate enough for clinical motion research. This work proposes an evaluation of different smartphone sensors performance and different manufacturer algorithm performances with the comparison to the gold standard, an industrial robotic arm with an actual standard use inertial motion unit in clinical measurement, an Xsens product. Both dynamic and static protocols were used to perform these comparisons. Root Mean Square (RMS) mean values results for static protocol are under 0.3\textdegree{} for the different smartphones. RMS mean values results for dynamic protocol are more prone to bias induced by Euler angle representation. Statistical results prove that there are no filter effect on results for both protocols and no hardware effect. Smartphones performance can be compared to the Xsens gold standard for clinical research.},
  number = {9},
  journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)},
  doi = {10.3390/s150923168},
  author = {Mourcou, Quentin and Fleury, Anthony and Franco, C{\'e}line and Klopcic, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Vuillerme, Nicolas},
  month = sep,
  year = {2015},
  pages = {23168-23187},
  file = {/home/moorepants/Zotero/storage/W8BSV9SZ/Mourcou et al. - 2015 - Performance Evaluation of Smartphone Inertial Sens.pdf},
  pmid = {26389900},
  pmcid = {PMC4610531}
}
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