The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Muldoon, M; Ousley, O.; Kobrynski, L.; Patel, S; Oster, M.; Fernandez-Carriba, S; Cubells, J.; Coleman, K; and Pearce, B. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 265(6):519–524, September, 2015.
The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a copy number variant disorder that has a diverse clinical presentation including hypocalcaemia, learning disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. Many patients with 22q11DS present with signs that overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet the possible physiological mechanisms that link 22q11DS with ASD are unknown. We hypothesized that early childhood hypocalcemia influences the neurobehavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort of 22q11DS patients, we abstracted albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels from 151 participants ranging in age from newborn to 19.5 years (mean 2.5 years). We then examined a subset of 20 infants and toddlers from this group for the association between the lowest calcium level on record and scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP ITC). The mean (SD) age at calcium testing was 6.2 (8.5) months, whereas the mean (SD) age at the CSBS-DP ITC assessment was 14.7 (3.8) months. Lower calcium was associated with significantly greater impairment in the CSBS-DP ITC Social (p \textless 0.05), Speech (p \textless 0.01), and Symbolic domains (p \textless 0.05), in regression models adjusted for sex, age at blood draw, and age at the psychological assessment. Nevertheless, these findings are limited by the small sample size of children with combined data on calcium and CSBS-DP ITC, and hence will require replication in a larger cohort with longitudinal assessments. Considering the role of calcium regulation in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, low calcium during early brain development could be a risk factor for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes.
@article{muldoon_effect_2015,
	title = {The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome.},
	volume = {265},
	url = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267002},
	doi = {10.1007/s00406-014-0546-0},
	abstract = {22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a copy number variant disorder that has a diverse clinical presentation including hypocalcaemia, learning disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. Many patients with 22q11DS present with signs that overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet the possible physiological mechanisms that link 22q11DS with ASD are unknown. We hypothesized that early childhood hypocalcemia influences the neurobehavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort of 22q11DS patients, we abstracted albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels from 151 participants ranging in age from newborn to 19.5 years (mean 2.5 years). We then examined a subset of 20 infants and toddlers from this group for the association between the lowest calcium level on record and scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP ITC). The mean (SD) age at calcium testing was 6.2 (8.5) months, whereas the mean (SD) age at the CSBS-DP ITC assessment was 14.7 (3.8) months. Lower calcium was associated with significantly greater impairment in the CSBS-DP ITC Social (p {\textless} 0.05), Speech (p {\textless} 0.01), and Symbolic domains (p {\textless} 0.05), in regression models adjusted for sex, age at blood draw, and age at the psychological assessment. Nevertheless, these findings are limited by the small sample size of children with combined data on calcium and CSBS-DP ITC, and hence will require replication in a larger cohort with longitudinal assessments. Considering the role of calcium regulation in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, low calcium during early brain development could be a risk factor for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {6},
	journal = {Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci},
	author = {Muldoon, M and Ousley, OY and Kobrynski, LJ and Patel, S and Oster, ME and Fernandez-Carriba, S and Cubells, JF and Coleman, K and Pearce, BD},
	month = sep,
	year = {2015},
	keywords = {Young Adult},
	pages = {519--524}
}
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