The Cost-effectiveness of Pixantrone for Third/Fourth-line Treatment of Aggressive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Muszbek, N., Kadambi, A., Lanitis, T., Hatswell, A. J., Patel, D., Wang, L., Singer, J. W., & Pettengell, R. Clinical Therapeutics, 38(3):503–515, March, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
PURPOSE: Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (aNHL) is associated with poor long-term survival after relapse, and treatment is limited by a lack of consensus regarding standard of care. Pixantrone was studied in a randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory aNHL who had failed ≥ 2 lines of therapy, demonstrating a significant improvement in complete or unconfirmed complete response and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with investigators' choice of single-agent therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the health economic implications of pixantrone versus current clinical practice (CCP) in the United Kingdom for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL receiving their third or fourth line of treatment. METHODS: A semi-Markov partition model based on overall survival and PFS was developed to evaluate the lifetime clinical and economic impact of treatment of multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL with pixantrone versus CCP. The empirical overall survival and PFS data from the PIX301 trial were extrapolated to a lifetime horizon. Resource use was elicited from clinical experts, and unit costs and utilities were obtained from published sources. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the United Kingdom's National Health Service and personal social services. Outcomes evaluated were total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost per QALY gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty around the results. FINDINGS: Pixantrone was estimated to increase life expectancy by a mean of 10.8 months per patient compared with CCP and a mean gain of 0.56 discounted QALYs. The increased health gains were associated with an increase in discounted costs of approximately £18,494 per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of pixantrone versus CCP was £33,272 per QALY gained. Sensitivity and scenario analyses suggest that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to uncertainty in the PFS and overall survival estimates and the utility values associated with each health state. IMPLICATIONS: Pixantrone may be considered both clinically effective and cost-effective for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL who currently have a high level of unmet need.
@article{muszbek_cost-effectiveness_2016,
	title = {The {Cost}-effectiveness of {Pixantrone} for {Third}/{Fourth}-line {Treatment} of {Aggressive} {Non}-{Hodgkin}'s {Lymphoma}},
	volume = {38},
	issn = {1879-114X},
	doi = {10.1016/j.clinthera.2016.01.004},
	abstract = {PURPOSE: Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (aNHL) is associated with poor long-term survival after relapse, and treatment is limited by a lack of consensus regarding standard of care. Pixantrone was studied in a randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory aNHL who had failed ≥ 2 lines of therapy, demonstrating a significant improvement in complete or unconfirmed complete response and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with investigators' choice of single-agent therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the health economic implications of pixantrone versus current clinical practice (CCP) in the United Kingdom for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL receiving their third or fourth line of treatment.
METHODS: A semi-Markov partition model based on overall survival and PFS was developed to evaluate the lifetime clinical and economic impact of treatment of multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL with pixantrone versus CCP. The empirical overall survival and PFS data from the PIX301 trial were extrapolated to a lifetime horizon. Resource use was elicited from clinical experts, and unit costs and utilities were obtained from published sources. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the United Kingdom's National Health Service and personal social services. Outcomes evaluated were total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost per QALY gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty around the results.
FINDINGS: Pixantrone was estimated to increase life expectancy by a mean of 10.8 months per patient compared with CCP and a mean gain of 0.56 discounted QALYs. The increased health gains were associated with an increase in discounted costs of approximately £18,494 per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of pixantrone versus CCP was £33,272 per QALY gained. Sensitivity and scenario analyses suggest that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to uncertainty in the PFS and overall survival estimates and the utility values associated with each health state.
IMPLICATIONS: Pixantrone may be considered both clinically effective and cost-effective for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL who currently have a high level of unmet need.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {3},
	journal = {Clinical Therapeutics},
	author = {Muszbek, N. and Kadambi, A. and Lanitis, T. and Hatswell, A. J. and Patel, D. and Wang, L. and Singer, J. W. and Pettengell, R.},
	month = mar,
	year = {2016},
	pmid = {26856929},
	keywords = {Antineoplastic Agents, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Disease-Free Survival, Humans, Isoquinolines, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Recurrence, Retreatment, Secondary Prevention, Survival Rate, United Kingdom, cost-effectiveness, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, pixantrone, survival analysis},
	pages = {503--515}
}
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