Oak Forest Exploitation and Black-Locust Invasion Caused Severe Shifts in Epiphytic Lichen Communities in Northern Italy. Nascimbene, J. & Marini, L. 408(22):5506–5512.
Oak Forest Exploitation and Black-Locust Invasion Caused Severe Shifts in Epiphytic Lichen Communities in Northern Italy [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In the last two centuries, native European oak forests have undergone a dramatic decline related to increasing human pressure for agriculture and urbanization. Oak forests were either completely eradicated and transformed into agricultural landscapes or replaced by second-growth formations. Intensive forest management and the replacement of native forests with production forests or arable lands are recognized amongst the main threats to many lichens in Europe. In this study, we used historical information on the epiphytic lichen biota which was hosted in a native oak-dominated forest of Northern Italy to identify shifts of lichen communities due to the changes in land use which occurred during the last two centuries. We also compared the epiphytic lichen communities inhabiting remnant oak forests with those found in the habitats that have replaced native forests: black-locust forests and agrarian landscapes. Almost all the species sampled during the 19th century are now extinct. The loss of native habitat and the subsequent invasion by black locust were probably the most influential factors which affected the composition of lichen communities, causing the local extinction of most of the species historically recorded. Despite the fact that oak remnants host only a few species which were historically recorded, and that they currently are the lichen poorest habitat in the study region, they host lichen assemblages differing from those of black-locust forests and agrarian stands. In these habitats lichen assemblages are mainly composed of species adapted to well-lit, dry conditions and tolerating air pollution and eutrophication. This pattern is likely to be common also in other lowland and hilly regions throughout Northern Italy where oak forests are targeted among the habitats of conservation concern at the European level. For this reason, a national strategy for biodiversity conservation and monitoring of lowlands forests should provide the framework for local restoration projects.
@article{nascimbeneOakForestExploitation2010,
  title = {Oak Forest Exploitation and Black-Locust Invasion Caused Severe Shifts in Epiphytic Lichen Communities in {{Northern Italy}}},
  author = {Nascimbene, Juri and Marini, Lorenzo},
  date = {2010-10},
  journaltitle = {Science of The Total Environment},
  volume = {408},
  pages = {5506--5512},
  issn = {0048-9697},
  doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.056},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.056},
  abstract = {In the last two centuries, native European oak forests have undergone a dramatic decline related to increasing human pressure for agriculture and urbanization. Oak forests were either completely eradicated and transformed into agricultural landscapes or replaced by second-growth formations. Intensive forest management and the replacement of native forests with production forests or arable lands are recognized amongst the main threats to many lichens in Europe. In this study, we used historical information on the epiphytic lichen biota which was hosted in a native oak-dominated forest of Northern Italy to identify shifts of lichen communities due to the changes in land use which occurred during the last two centuries. We also compared the epiphytic lichen communities inhabiting remnant oak forests with those found in the habitats that have replaced native forests: black-locust forests and agrarian landscapes. Almost all the species sampled during the 19th century are now extinct. The loss of native habitat and the subsequent invasion by black locust were probably the most influential factors which affected the composition of lichen communities, causing the local extinction of most of the species historically recorded. Despite the fact that oak remnants host only a few species which were historically recorded, and that they currently are the lichen poorest habitat in the study region, they host lichen assemblages differing from those of black-locust forests and agrarian stands. In these habitats lichen assemblages are mainly composed of species adapted to well-lit, dry conditions and tolerating air pollution and eutrophication. This pattern is likely to be common also in other lowland and hilly regions throughout Northern Italy where oak forests are targeted among the habitats of conservation concern at the European level. For this reason, a national strategy for biodiversity conservation and monitoring of lowlands forests should provide the framework for local restoration projects.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13798488,forest-resources,invasive-species,italy,lichens,oak-decline,robinia-pseudoacacia},
  number = {22}
}
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