Two-Person Cooperative Games. Nash, J. F. 21(1):128–140.
Two-Person Cooperative Games [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In this paper, the author extends his previous treatment of 'The Bargaining Problem" to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role. A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept. [Introduction] The theory presented here was developed to treat economic (or other) situations involving two individuals whose interests are neither completely opposed nor completely coincident. The word cooperative is used because the two individuals are supposed to be able to discuss the situation and agree on a rational joint plan of action, an agreement that should be assumed to be enforceable. [\n] It is conventional to call these situations "games" when they are being studied from an abstract mathematical viewpoint. Here the original situation is reduced to a mathematical description, or model. In the abstract "game" formulation only the minimum quantity of information necessary for the solution is retained. What the actual alternative courses of action are among which the individuals must choose is not regarded as essential information. These alternatives are treated as abstract objects without special qualities and are called "strategies". Only the attitudes (like or dislike) of the two individuals towards the ultimate results of the use of the various possible opposing pairs of strategies are considered; but this information must be well utilised and must be expressed quantitatively. [...]
@article{nashTwopersonCooperativeGames1953,
  title = {Two-Person Cooperative Games},
  author = {Nash, John F.},
  date = {1953},
  journaltitle = {Econometrica},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {128--140},
  issn = {1468-0262},
  doi = {10.2307/1906951},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1906951},
  abstract = {In this paper, the author extends his previous treatment of 'The Bargaining Problem" to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role. A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept. 

[Introduction] The theory presented here was developed to treat economic (or other) situations involving two individuals whose interests are neither completely opposed nor completely coincident. The word cooperative is used because the two individuals are supposed to be able to discuss the situation and agree on a rational joint plan of action, an agreement that should be assumed to be enforceable. [\textbackslash n] It is conventional to call these situations "games" when they are being studied from an abstract mathematical viewpoint. Here the original situation is reduced to a mathematical description, or model. In the abstract "game" formulation only the minimum quantity of information necessary for the solution is retained. What the actual alternative courses of action are among which the individuals must choose is not regarded as essential information. These alternatives are treated as abstract objects without special qualities and are called "strategies". Only the attitudes (like or dislike) of the two individuals towards the ultimate results of the use of the various possible opposing pairs of strategies are considered; but this information must be well utilised and must be expressed quantitatively. [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13626389,~to-add-doi-URL,cooperation,game-theory,high-impact-publication,mathematical-reasoning,multi-stakeholder-decision-making,precursor-research,strategy-vs-tactic},
  number = {1}
}
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