A comprehensive review of vertical tail design. Nicolosi, F., Ciliberti, D., Della Vecchia, P., Corcione, S., & Cusati, V. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 89(4):547-557, 2017.
A comprehensive review of vertical tail design [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
This work deals with a comprehensive review of vertical tail design methods for aircraft directional stability and vertical tail sizing. The focus on aircraft directional stability is due to the significant discrepancies that classical semi-empirical methods, as USAF DATCOM and ESDU, provide for some configurations, since they are based on NACA wind tunnel tests about models not representative of an actual transport airplane. The authors performed RANS CFD simulations to calculate the aerodynamic interference among aircraft parts for hundreds configurations of a generic regional turboprop aircraft, providing useful results that have been collected in a new vertical tail preliminary design method, named VeDSC. Semi-empirical methods have been put in comparison on a regional turboprop aircraft, where the VeDSC method shows a strong agreement with numerical results. A wind tunnel investigation involving more than 180 configurations has validated the numerical approach. The investigation has covered both the linear and the non-linear range of the aerodynamic coefficients, including the mutual aerodynamic interference between the fuselage and the vertical stabilizer. Also, a preliminary investigation about rudder effectiveness, related to aircraft directional control, is presented. In the final part of the paper, critical issues in vertical tail design are reviewed, highlighting the significance of a good estimation of aircraft directional stability and control derivatives.
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 title = {A comprehensive review of vertical tail design},
 type = {article},
 year = {2017},
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 keywords = {Aircraft design,CFD,Stability and control,Vertical tail,Wind tunnel tests},
 pages = {547-557},
 volume = {89},
 websites = {http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/10.1108/AEAT-11-2016-0213},
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 abstract = {This work deals with a comprehensive review of vertical tail design methods for aircraft directional stability and vertical tail sizing. The focus on aircraft directional stability is due to the significant discrepancies that classical semi-empirical methods, as USAF DATCOM and ESDU, provide for some configurations, since they are based on NACA wind tunnel tests about models not representative of an actual transport airplane. The authors performed RANS CFD simulations to calculate the aerodynamic interference among aircraft parts for hundreds configurations of a generic regional turboprop aircraft, providing useful results that have been collected in a new vertical tail preliminary design method, named VeDSC. Semi-empirical methods have been put in comparison on a regional turboprop aircraft, where the VeDSC method shows a strong agreement with numerical results. A wind tunnel investigation involving more than 180 configurations has validated the numerical approach. The investigation has covered both the linear and the non-linear range of the aerodynamic coefficients, including the mutual aerodynamic interference between the fuselage and the vertical stabilizer. Also, a preliminary investigation about rudder effectiveness, related to aircraft directional control, is presented. In the final part of the paper, critical issues in vertical tail design are reviewed, highlighting the significance of a good estimation of aircraft directional stability and control derivatives.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Nicolosi, Fabrizio and Ciliberti, Danilo and Della Vecchia, Pierluigi and Corcione, Salvatore and Cusati, Vincenzo},
 journal = {Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology},
 number = {4}
}
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