T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage: A comparative quantitative MRI and polarized light microscopic study. Nieminen, M. T., Rieppo, J., Töyräs, J., Hakumäki, J. M., Silvennoinen, J., Hyttinen, M. M., Helminen, H. J., & Jurvelin, J. S. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 46(3):487–493, September, 2001.
T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage: A comparative quantitative MRI and polarized light microscopic study. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
It has been suggested that orientational changes in the collagen network of articular cartilage account for the depthwise T2 anisotropy of MRI through the magic angle effect. To investigate the relationship between laminar T2 appearance and collagen organization (anisotropy), bovine osteochondral plugs (N = 9) were T2 mapped at 9.4T with cartilage surface normal to the static magnetic field. Collagen fibril arrangement of the same samples was studied with polarized light microscopy, a quantitative technique for probing collagen organization by analyzing its ability to rotate plane polarized light, i.e., birefringence (BF). Depthwise variation of safranin O-stained proteoglycans was monitored with digital densitometry. The spatially varying cartilage T2 followed the architectural arrangement of the collagen fibril network: a linear positive correlation between T2 and the reciprocal of BF was established in each sample, with r = 0.91 ± 0.02 (mean ± SEM, N = 9). The current results reveal the close connection between the laminar T2 structure and the collagen architecture in histologic zones. Magn Reson Med 46:487–493, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
@article{nieminen_t2_2001,
	title = {T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage: {A} comparative quantitative {MRI} and polarized light microscopic study.},
	volume = {46},
	issn = {1522-2594},
	shorttitle = {T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage},
	url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrm.1218/abstract},
	doi = {10.1002/mrm.1218},
	abstract = {It has been suggested that orientational changes in the collagen network of articular cartilage account for the depthwise T2 anisotropy of MRI through the magic angle effect. To investigate the relationship between laminar T2 appearance and collagen organization (anisotropy), bovine osteochondral plugs (N = 9) were T2 mapped at 9.4T with cartilage surface normal to the static magnetic field. Collagen fibril arrangement of the same samples was studied with polarized light microscopy, a quantitative technique for probing collagen organization by analyzing its ability to rotate plane polarized light, i.e., birefringence (BF). Depthwise variation of safranin O-stained proteoglycans was monitored with digital densitometry. The spatially varying cartilage T2 followed the architectural arrangement of the collagen fibril network: a linear positive correlation between T2 and the reciprocal of BF was established in each sample, with r = 0.91 ± 
0.02 (mean ± SEM, N = 9). The current results reveal the close connection between the laminar T2 structure and the collagen architecture in histologic zones. Magn Reson Med 46:487–493, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
	language = {en},
	number = {3},
	urldate = {2016-11-22},
	journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
	author = {Nieminen, Miika T. and Rieppo, Jarno and Töyräs, Juha and Hakumäki, Juhana M. and Silvennoinen, Johanna and Hyttinen, Mika M. and Helminen, Heikki J. and Jurvelin, Jukka S.},
	month = sep,
	year = {2001},
	keywords = {Articular cartilage, MRI, T2, collagen, polarized light microscopy},
	pages = {487--493}
}

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