Trapped-electron runaway effect. Nilsson, E., Decker, J., Fisch, N., J., & Peysson, Y. Journal of Plasma Physics, 81(04):475810403, 2015.
Trapped-electron runaway effect [pdf]Paper  Trapped-electron runaway effect [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
In a tokamak, trapped electrons subject to a strong electric field cannot run away immediately, because their parallel velocity does not increase over a bounce period. However, they do pinch towards the tokamak center. As they pinch towards the center, the trapping cone becomes more narrow, so eventually they can be detrapped and run away. When they run away, trapped electrons will have very a different signature from circulating electrons subject to the Dreicer mechanism. The characteristics of what are called trapped-electron runaways are identified and quantified, including their distinguishable perpendicular velocity spectrum and radial extent.

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