Magnetic resonance imaging-guided vascular interventions. Ozturk, C., Guttman, M., McVeigh, E., & Lederman, R. Top Magn Reson Imaging, 16(5):369--381, Oct, 2005.
  author =       "C. Ozturk and M. Guttman and E.R. McVeigh and R.J.
  title =        "Magnetic resonance imaging-guided vascular interventions.",
  journal =      "Top Magn Reson Imaging",
  year =         "2005",
  month =        "Oct",
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "369--381",
  robnote =      "Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides superior
                 soft-tissue imaging and no known harmful effects, has the
                 potential as an alternative modality to guide various
                 medical interventions. This review will focus on MR-guided
                 endovascular interventions and present its current state
                 and future outlook. In the first technical part, enabling
                 technologies such as developments in fast imaging,
                 catheter devices, and visualization techniques are
                 examined. This is followed by a clinical survey that
                 includes proof-of-concept procedures in animals and
                 initial experience in human subjects. In preclinical
                 experiments, MRI has already proven to be valuable. For
                 example, MRI has been used to guide and track targeted
                 cell delivery into or around myocardial infarctions, to
                 guide atrial septal puncture, and to guide the connection
                 of portal and systemic venous circulations. Several
                 investigational MR-guided procedures have already been
                 reported in patients, such as MR-guided cardiac
                 catheterization, invasive imaging of peripheral artery
                 atheromata, selective intraarterial MR angiography, and
                 preliminary angioplasty and stent placement. In addition,
                 MR-assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
                 procedures in patients have been shown in a novel hybrid
                 double-doughnut x-ray/MRI system. Numerous additional
                 investigational human MR-guided endovascular procedures
                 are now underway in several medical centers around the
                 world. There are also significant hurdles: availability of
                 clinical-grade devices, device-related safety issues,
                 challenges to patient monitoring, and acoustic noise
                 during imaging. The potential of endovascular
                 interventional MRI is great because as a single modality,
                 it combines 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, device
                 localization, hemodynamics, tissue composition, and
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 26 13:21:34 2009",
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