Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation. Parent, A. Can J Neurol Sci, 31(4):576--584, Nov, 2004.
  author =       "A. Parent",
  title =        "Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain
  journal =      "Can J Neurol Sci",
  year =         "2004",
  month =        "Nov",
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "576--584",
  robnote =      "Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly
                 influential book that reported experiments in which the
                 principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and
                 Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used
                 together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in
                 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his
                 native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani,
                 he actively participated in a series of crucial
                 experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that
                 electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from
                 brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental
                 physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled
                 extensively throughout Europe, spending much time
                 defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the
                 incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal
                 electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply
                 electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and
                 humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments
                 made a strong and enduring impression on his
                 contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with
                 personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation
                 following transcranial administration of electric current.
                 Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of
                 various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used
                 later in the 19th century. In recognition of his merits, Aldini
                 was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of
                 state at Milan, where he died in 1834.",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 23 12:23:13 2014",

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