Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Pimentel, D.; Lach, L.; Zuniga, R.; and Morrison, D. BioScience, 50(1):53-65, 2000.
abstract   bibtex   
Approximately 50,000 nonindigenous (non-native) species are estimated to have been introduced to the United States. Some of these are beneficial; for example, species introduced as food crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) and as livestock (e.g., cattle and poultry) now provide more than 98% of the US food system, at a value of approximately $800 billion per year (USBC 1998). Other exotic species have been introduced for landscape restoration, biological pest control, sport, pets, and food processing , also with significant benefits. Some non-indigenous species, however, have caused major economic losses in agriculture, forestry, and several other segments of the US economy, in addition to harming the environment. One study reported that 79 exotic species had caused approximately $97 billion in damages during the period 1906-1991 (OTA 1993). Estimating the full extent of the environmental damage, caused by exotic species and the number of species extinctions they have caused is difficult because little is known about the estimated 750,000 species in the United States, half of which have not even been described (Raven and Johnson, 1992). Nevertheless, approximately 400 of the 958 species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act are considered to be at risk primarily because of competition with and predation by nonindigenous species (TNC 1996, Wilcove et al. 1998). In other regions of the world, as many as 80% of the endangered species are threatened due to the pressures of non-native species (Armstrong 1995). Many other species worldwide, even if they do not have endangered status, are also negatively affected by alien species or ecosystem changes caused by alien species. Estimating the economic impacts that are associated with nonindigenous species is also difficult; nevertheless, enough data are available to quantify some of the impacts on agriculture, forestry, and public health in the United States. In this article, we assess the magnitude of the environmental impacts and economic costs associated with the diverse nonindigenous species that have become established within the United States. Although species translocated within the United States can also have significant impacts, our assessment is limited to nonindigenous species that did not originate within the United States or its territories.
@article{
 title = {Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States},
 type = {article},
 year = {2000},
 keywords = {economic analysis,environmental analysis,invasive species},
 pages = {53-65},
 volume = {50},
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 last_modified = {2012-01-05T13:14:47.000Z},
 tags = {Invasive species},
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 source_type = {Journal Article},
 abstract = {Approximately 50,000 nonindigenous (non-native) species are estimated to have been introduced to the United States. Some of these are beneficial; for example, species introduced as food crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) and as livestock (e.g., cattle and poultry) now provide more than 98% of the US food system, at a value of approximately $800 billion per year (USBC 1998). Other exotic species have been introduced for landscape restoration, biological pest control, sport, pets, and food processing , also with significant benefits. Some non-indigenous species, however, have caused major economic losses in agriculture, forestry, and several other segments of the US economy, in addition to harming the environment. One study reported that 79 exotic species had caused approximately $97 billion in damages during the period 1906-1991 (OTA 1993). Estimating the full extent of the environmental damage, caused by exotic species and the number of species extinctions they have caused is difficult because little is known about the estimated 750,000 species in the United States, half of which have not even been described (Raven and Johnson, 1992). Nevertheless, approximately 400 of the 958 species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act are considered to be at risk primarily because of competition with and predation by nonindigenous species (TNC 1996, Wilcove et al. 1998). In other regions of the world, as many as 80% of the endangered species are threatened due to the pressures of non-native species (Armstrong 1995). Many other species worldwide, even if they do not have endangered status, are also negatively affected by alien species or ecosystem changes caused by alien species. Estimating the economic impacts that are associated with nonindigenous species is also difficult; nevertheless, enough data are available to quantify some of the impacts on agriculture, forestry, and public health in the United States. In this article, we assess the magnitude of the environmental impacts and economic costs associated with the diverse nonindigenous species that have become established within the United States. Although species translocated within the United States can also have significant impacts, our assessment is limited to nonindigenous species that did not originate within the United States or its territories.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Pimentel, David and Lach, Lori and Zuniga, Rodolfo and Morrison, Doug},
 journal = {BioScience},
 number = {1}
}
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