Bt corn pollen impacts on nontarget Lepidoptera: Assessment of effects in nature. Pimentel, D., S. and Raven, P., H. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(15):8198-8199, 2000.
abstract   bibtex   
[From text] Taking the overall picture into account, the effect on the survival of butterfly populations of Bt corn pollen dusting their larval food plants appears to be relatively insignificant compared with other factors. For example, the high productivity of U.S. agriculture is made possible by the application of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Despite the yearly application of about 115 million kilograms of pesticides to control insect pests, other plant pathogens, and weeds on corn, these pests continue to reduce potential corn yields by nearly one-third (4). Consequently, corn receives more pesticide treatments than any other U.S. crop. If untreated, corn rootworm can reduce corn yields by 45% and the European corn borer by as much as 20%. The corn rootworm can be controlled with insecticides by rotating corn with non-corn crops, or by newly developed genetically modified strains of corn that have not yet reached the market. The corn borer, however, is a difficult pest to control with contact insecticides, because once the larvae have burrowed into the corn stalks, they are impossible to kill by conventional spraying techniques (5), the basic reason that Bt corn has so rapidly become popular in the U.S. and to a limited extent elsewhere. Using Bt corn makes it possible for farmers to avoid the critical timing of the insecticide applications that is necessary to control corn borers (5).
@article{
 title = {Bt corn pollen impacts on nontarget Lepidoptera: Assessment of effects in nature},
 type = {article},
 year = {2000},
 pages = {8198-8199},
 volume = {97},
 websites = {http://www.pnas.org/content/97/15/8198.short},
 id = {60a62cc5-9420-3071-b4c7-70e521695245},
 created = {2012-01-05T13:08:30.000Z},
 file_attached = {false},
 profile_id = {1a467167-0a41-3583-a6a3-034c31031332},
 group_id = {0e532975-1a47-38a4-ace8-4fe5968bcd72},
 last_modified = {2012-01-05T13:14:50.000Z},
 tags = {Bt corn,environmental,habitat,non-target,review},
 read = {false},
 starred = {false},
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 source_type = {Journal Article},
 abstract = {[From text]  Taking the overall picture into account, the effect on the survival of butterfly populations of Bt corn pollen dusting their larval food plants appears to be relatively insignificant compared with other factors. For example, the high productivity of U.S. agriculture is made possible by the application of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Despite the yearly application of about 115 million kilograms of pesticides to control insect pests, other plant pathogens, and weeds on corn, these pests continue to reduce potential corn yields by nearly one-third (4). Consequently, corn receives more pesticide treatments than any other U.S. crop. If untreated, corn rootworm can reduce corn yields by 45% and the European corn borer by as much as 20%. The corn rootworm can be controlled with insecticides by rotating corn with non-corn crops, or by newly developed genetically modified strains of corn that have not yet reached the market. The corn borer, however, is a difficult pest to control with contact insecticides, because once the larvae have burrowed into the corn stalks, they are impossible to kill by conventional spraying techniques (5), the basic reason that Bt corn has so rapidly become popular in the U.S. and to a limited extent elsewhere. Using Bt corn makes it possible for farmers to avoid the critical timing of the insecticide applications that is necessary to control corn borers (5).},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Pimentel, David S and Raven, Peter H},
 journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
 number = {15}
}
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