Modelling gastrointestinal bioelectric activity. Pullan, A., Cheng, L., Yassi, R., & Buist, M. Prog Biophys Mol Biol, 85(2-3):523--550, June-July, 2004.
  author =       "A. Pullan and L. Cheng and R. Yassi and M. Buist",
  title =        "Modelling gastrointestinal bioelectric activity.",
  journal =      "Prog Biophys Mol Biol",
  year =         "2004",
  month =        jun # "-" # jul,
  volume =       "85",
  number =       "2-3",
  pages =        "523--550",
  robnote =      "The development of an anatomically realistic
                 biophysically based model of the human gastrointestinal
                 (GI) tract is presented. A major objective of this work
                 is to develop a modelling framework that can be used to
                 integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical
                 knowledge of the GI system. The anatomical model was
                 developed by fitting derivative continuous meshes to
                 digitised data taken from images of the visible man.
                 Structural information, including fibre distributions
                 of the smooth muscle layers and the arrangement of the
                 networks of interstitial cells of Cajal, were
                 incorporated using published information. A continuum
                 modelling framework was used to simulate electrical
                 activity from the single cell to the whole organ and
                 body. Also computed was the external magnetic field
                 generated from the GI electrical activity. The set of
                 governing equations were solved using a combination of
                 numerical techniques. Activity at the (continuum) cell
                 level was solved using a high-resolution trilinear
                 finite element procedure that had been defined from the
                 previously fitted C1 continuous anatomical mesh.
                 Multiple dipolar sources were created from the
                 excitation waves which were embedded within a coupled
                 C1 continuous torso model to produce both the cutaneous
                 electrical field and the external magnetic field.
                 Initial simulations were performed using a simplified
                 geometry to test the implementation of the numerical
                 solution procedure. The numerical procedures were shown
                 to rapidly converge with mesh refinement. In the
                 process of this testing, errors in a long standing
                 analytic solution were identified and are corrected in
                 Appendix B. Results of single cell activity were
                 compared to published results illustrating that the key
                 features of the slow wave activity were successfully
                 replicated. Simulations using a two-dimensional slice
                 through the gastric wall produced slow wave activity
                 that agreed with the known frequency and propagation
                 characteristics. Three-dimensional simulations were
                 also performed using the full stomach mesh and results
                 illustrated the slow wave propagation throughout the
                 stomach musculature.",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 8 18:24:04 2007",

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