Quantifying entanglement in cluster states built with error-prone interactions. Qin, Z., Lee, W., DeMarco, B., Gadway, B., Kotochigova, S., & Scarola, V., W. Physical Review Research, 3(4):043118, American Physical Society, 11, 2021.
Quantifying entanglement in cluster states built with error-prone interactions [pdf]Paper  Quantifying entanglement in cluster states built with error-prone interactions [link]Website  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Measurements on cluster states can be used to process quantum information. But errors in cluster states naturally accrue as error-prone inter-particle interactions entangle qubits. We consider one-dimensional cluster states built from controlled phase, Ising, and XY interactions with slow two-qubit error in the interaction strength, consistent with error models of interactions found in a variety of qubit architectures. We focus on measurement protocols designed to implement perfect teleportation wherein quantum information moves across a cluster state intact. Deviations from perfect teleportation offer a proxy for entanglement that can be degraded by two-qubit gate errors. We detail an experimentally viable teleportation fidelity that offers a measure of the impact of error on the cluster state as a whole. Our fidelity calculations show that the error has a distinctly different impact depending on the underlying interaction used for the two-qubit entangling gate. In particular, the Ising and XY interactions can allow perfect teleportation through the cluster state even with large errors, but the controlled phase interaction does not. Nonetheless, we find that teleportation through cluster state chains of size $N$ has a maximum two-qubit error for teleportation along a quantum channel that decreases as $N^-1/2$. To allow construction of larger cluster states, we also design lowest-order refocusing pulses for correcting slow errors in the interaction strength. Our work generalizes to higher-dimensional cluster states and sets the stage for experiments to monitor the growth of entanglement in cluster states built from error-prone interactions.

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