The Spread of Illegal Transgenic Cotton Varieties in India: Biosafety Regulation, Monopoly, and Enforcement. Ramaswami, B., Pray, C., E., & Lalitha, N. World Development.
The Spread of Illegal Transgenic Cotton Varieties in India: Biosafety Regulation, Monopoly, and Enforcement [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Summary Plantings of unapproved genetically modified seeds (GM) happen in many developing countries including Brazil, China, and India even though the law does not permit it. Is regulation impossible and what does that imply for safe use of GM seeds? This paper examines these questions in the case of unapproved GM cotton plantings in Gujarat, India. We find that enforcement was possible and that there are no obvious bio-safety implications. The popularity of unapproved seeds (confirmed by contingent valuations), the de-facto intellectual property of legal seeds and the federal polity of India contributed to non-compliance. This could matter for future innovations.
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 title = {The Spread of Illegal Transgenic Cotton Varieties in India: Biosafety Regulation, Monopoly, and Enforcement},
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 keywords = {Asia,Bt cotton,India,biosafety regulation,genetically modified seeds,transgenic varieties},
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 abstract = {Summary Plantings of unapproved genetically modified seeds (GM) happen in many developing countries including Brazil, China, and India even though the law does not permit it. Is regulation impossible and what does that imply for safe use of GM seeds? This paper examines these questions in the case of unapproved GM cotton plantings in Gujarat, India. We find that enforcement was possible and that there are no obvious bio-safety implications. The popularity of unapproved seeds (confirmed by contingent valuations), the de-facto intellectual property of legal seeds and the federal polity of India contributed to non-compliance. This could matter for future innovations.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Ramaswami, Bharat and Pray, Carl E and Lalitha, N},
 journal = {World Development}
}
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