Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in urban and remote surface waters in Germany. Regnery, J. & Püttmann, W. Water research, 44(14):4097--104, July, 2010.
Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in urban and remote surface waters in Germany. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Within this study, concentration levels and distribution of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) were investigated at nine lentic surface waters under different anthropogenic impact between June 2007 and October 2009. Furthermore, the possibility of in-lake photochemical degradation of the analytes was studied in laboratory experiments using spiked ultrapure water and lake water samples incubated in Teflon bottles (which transmit sunlight). TBEP, TiBP, and TnBP were photochemically degraded in spiked lake water samples upon exposure to sunlight. Organophosphate concentrations in the more remote lakes were often below or close to the limits of quantification (LOQ). TCPP was the substance with the highest median concentration in rural volcanic lakes (7-18ngL(-1)) indicating an atmospheric transport of the compound. At urban lakes their median concentrations were in the range of 23-61ngL(-1) (TCEP), 85-126ngL(-1) (TCPP), \textbackslashtextlessLOQ-53ngL(-1) (TBEP), 8-10ngL(-1) (TiBP), and 17-32ngL(-1) (TnBP). High variability but no significant seasonal trends were observed for all five organophosphates in urban lake water samples.
@article{regnery_occurrence_2010,
	title = {Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in urban and remote surface waters in {Germany}.},
	volume = {44},
	issn = {1879-2448},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20599098},
	doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.024},
	abstract = {Within this study, concentration levels and distribution of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) were investigated at nine lentic surface waters under different anthropogenic impact between June 2007 and October 2009. Furthermore, the possibility of in-lake photochemical degradation of the analytes was studied in laboratory experiments using spiked ultrapure water and lake water samples incubated in Teflon bottles (which transmit sunlight). TBEP, TiBP, and TnBP were photochemically degraded in spiked lake water samples upon exposure to sunlight. Organophosphate concentrations in the more remote lakes were often below or close to the limits of quantification (LOQ). TCPP was the substance with the highest median concentration in rural volcanic lakes (7-18ngL(-1)) indicating an atmospheric transport of the compound. At urban lakes their median concentrations were in the range of 23-61ngL(-1) (TCEP), 85-126ngL(-1) (TCPP), {\textbackslash}textlessLOQ-53ngL(-1) (TBEP), 8-10ngL(-1) (TiBP), and 17-32ngL(-1) (TnBP). High variability but no significant seasonal trends were observed for all five organophosphates in urban lake water samples.},
	number = {14},
	journal = {Water research},
	author = {Regnery, Julia and Püttmann, Wilhelm},
	month = jul,
	year = {2010},
	pmid = {20599098},
	keywords = {Cities, Flame retardants, Fresh Water, Fresh Water: analysis, Germany, Organophosphates, Organophosphates: analysis, Plasticizers, Water Supply, Water Supply: analysis},
	pages = {4097--104}
}

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