Introduced or Native Tree Species to Maintain Forest Ecosystem Services in a Hotter and Drier Future?. Rigling, A., Gessler, A., Feichtinger, L., Queloz, V., & Wohlgemuth, T. In Krumm, F. & V́ıtková, L., editors, Introduced Tree Species in European Forests: Opportunities and Challenges, pages 236–246. European Forest Institute.
Introduced or Native Tree Species to Maintain Forest Ecosystem Services in a Hotter and Drier Future? [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] Climate change might profoundly alter patterns and processes in forest ecosystems that have consequences on the biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and productivity (e.g. Lindner et al. 2014). Temperature- and drought-related changes have been identified as important triggers of forest decline and vegetation shifts worldwide (Allen et al. 2010). In Europe, several native tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are showing increased sensitivities to recent increases in temperature and extreme droughts resulting in growth reduction or increased mortality rates (Temperli et al. 2012, Rigling et al. 2013, Lebourgeois et al. 2010). It is predicted that there will be increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events as well as in the occurrence of drought periods in the upcoming decades (IPCC 2014). In combination with increasing temperatures, so-called 'hotter droughts' are to be expected (Allen et al. 2015), which might play a key role in driving future forest dynamics by directly increasing drought-induced mortality or indirectly by reducing tree growth and vigour, impairing seedling establishment and increasing the susceptibility of trees to pests and diseases (Anderegg et al. 2015). [\n] Such changes will challenge sustainable forest management practices that aim to provide the variety of ecosystem services in the future. An essential element of forest management is the selection of suitable tree species mixtures. On one hand, biodiversity (i.e. selection and complementarity effects, Loreau and Hector 2001) might improve the drought resistance of trees in more diverse forests (e.g. Van der Plas et al. 2016). On the other hand, future forest management and an adapted tree species portfolio should consider the future climatic conditions. As native tree species might suffer from a hotter and drier future climate in certain regions, the native species composition might be complemented by drought tolerant tree species of non-native origin (Lindner et al. 2014). [\n] [...] [\n] Introduced tree species can certainly be considered as interesting alternatives when native tree species show high vulnerability to drought. However, due to the persisting uncertainties with regards to the effects that introduced tree species may have in new environments and ecosystems, the first choice should always be to use native tree species. On the other hand, recent experience with introduced diseases and pests such as the ash die-back (caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz & Hosoya) or the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) demonstrate that native, well adapted tree species, may face sudden existential problems (Orlova-Bienkowskajy 2014, Gross et al. 2014; see Text Box 20 on ash dieback). When we conclude substituting native tree species, large-scale monocultures should be avoided and mixed and uneven-aged stands that are less sensitive to pests and diseases should be promoted. [\n] Another important aspect to be considered are the trade-offs between productivity and drought resistance; Montwé et al. (2015) for instance concluded that selecting drought-resilient provenances as an adaptation strategy for climate change could compromise timber productivity. This philosophy has already been practiced in some protection forests where the forest stands are managed to retain or enhance their stability with productivity being a secondary aim. Nevertheless, if such ideas are to be applied to forests where timber production is the primary management aim, optimising forest management towards improved drought resistance (and less so for timber production) would therefore be a complete change of priorities. [\n] It is important to focus on alternative species that are drought-resistant in order to facilitate the adaptation of our forests to predicted future climatic changes. However, it is crucial to note that both direct as well as indirect effects of heat and drought stress on tree performance are to be considered; biotic stresses and their interactions with abiotic constraints as well as the overall sensitivity of tree species to pests and diseases also need to be born in mind (San-Miguel-Ayanz et al. 2016). The aim in such cases should thus be to minimise ecosystem vulnerability and to optimise the provision of all ecosystem services (Lindner et al. 2014). [\n] [...]
@incollection{riglingIntroducedNativeTree2016,
  title = {Introduced or Native Tree Species to Maintain Forest Ecosystem Services in a Hotter and Drier Future?},
  booktitle = {Introduced Tree Species in {{European}} Forests: Opportunities and Challenges},
  author = {Rigling, Andreas and Gessler, Arthur and Feichtinger, Linda and Queloz, Valentin and Wohlgemuth, Thomas},
  editor = {Krumm, Frank and V́ıtková, Lucie},
  date = {2016},
  pages = {236--246},
  publisher = {{European Forest Institute}},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/14216908},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] Climate change might profoundly alter patterns and processes in forest ecosystems that have consequences on the biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and productivity (e.g. Lindner et al. 2014). Temperature- and drought-related changes have been identified as important triggers of forest decline and vegetation shifts worldwide (Allen et al. 2010). In Europe, several native tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are showing increased sensitivities to recent increases in temperature and extreme droughts resulting in growth reduction or increased mortality rates (Temperli et al. 2012, Rigling et al. 2013, Lebourgeois et al. 2010). It is predicted that there will be increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events as well as in the occurrence of drought periods in the upcoming decades (IPCC 2014). In combination with increasing temperatures, so-called 'hotter droughts' are to be expected (Allen et al. 2015), which might play a key role in driving future forest dynamics by directly increasing drought-induced mortality or indirectly by reducing tree growth and vigour, impairing seedling establishment and increasing the susceptibility of trees to pests and diseases (Anderegg et al. 2015).

[\textbackslash n] Such changes will challenge sustainable forest management practices that aim to provide the variety of ecosystem services in the future. An essential element of forest management is the selection of suitable tree species mixtures. On one hand, biodiversity (i.e. selection and complementarity effects, Loreau and Hector 2001) might improve the drought resistance of trees in more diverse forests (e.g. Van der Plas et al. 2016). On the other hand, future forest management and an adapted tree species portfolio should consider the future climatic conditions. As native tree species might suffer from a hotter and drier future climate in certain regions, the native species composition might be complemented by drought tolerant tree species of non-native origin (Lindner et al. 2014).

[\textbackslash n] [...]

[\textbackslash n] Introduced tree species can certainly be considered as interesting alternatives when native tree species show high vulnerability to drought. However, due to the persisting uncertainties with regards to the effects that introduced tree species may have in new environments and ecosystems, the first choice should always be to use native tree species. On the other hand, recent experience with introduced diseases and pests such as the ash die-back (caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (T. Kowalski) Baral, Queloz \& Hosoya) or the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) demonstrate that native, well adapted tree species, may face sudden existential problems (Orlova-Bienkowskajy 2014, Gross et al. 2014; see Text Box 20 on ash dieback). When we conclude substituting native tree species, large-scale monocultures should be avoided and mixed and uneven-aged stands that are less sensitive to pests and diseases should be promoted.

[\textbackslash n] Another important aspect to be considered are the trade-offs between productivity and drought resistance; Montwé et al. (2015) for instance concluded that selecting drought-resilient provenances as an adaptation strategy for climate change could compromise timber productivity. This philosophy has already been practiced in some protection forests where the forest stands are managed to retain or enhance their stability with productivity being a secondary aim. Nevertheless, if such ideas are to be applied to forests where timber production is the primary management aim, optimising forest management towards improved drought resistance (and less so for timber production) would therefore be a complete change of priorities.

[\textbackslash n] It is important to focus on alternative species that are drought-resistant in order to facilitate the adaptation of our forests to predicted future climatic changes. However, it is crucial to note that both direct as well as indirect effects of heat and drought stress on tree performance are to be considered; biotic stresses and their interactions with abiotic constraints as well as the overall sensitivity of tree species to pests and diseases also need to be born in mind (San-Miguel-Ayanz et al. 2016). The aim in such cases should thus be to minimise ecosystem vulnerability and to optimise the provision of all ecosystem services (Lindner et al. 2014).

[\textbackslash n] [...]},
  isbn = {978-952-5980-32-5},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14216908,adaptation,climate-change,drought-tolerance,droughts,europe,forest-resources,invasive-species,mitigation}
}
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