Status and Ecological Effects of the World's Largest Carnivores. Ripple, W. J., Estes, J. A., Beschta, R. L., Wilmers, C. C., Ritchie, E. G., Hebblewhite, M., Berger, J., Elmhagen, B., Letnic, M., Nelson, M. P., Schmitz, O. J., Smith, D. W., Wallach, A. D., & Wirsing, A. J. 343(6167):1241484+.
Status and Ecological Effects of the World's Largest Carnivores [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The largest terrestrial species in the order Carnivora are wide-ranging and rare because of their positions at the top of food webs. They are some of the world's most admired mammals and, ironically, some of the most imperiled. Most have experienced substantial population declines and range contractions throughout the world during the past two centuries. Because of the high metabolic demands that come with endothermy and large body size, these carnivores often require large prey and expansive habitats. These food requirements and wide-ranging behavior often bring them into conflict with humans and livestock. This, in addition to human intolerance, renders them vulnerable to extinction. Large carnivores face enormous threats that have caused massive declines in their populations and geographic ranges, including habitat loss and degradation,persecution, utilization, and depletion of prey. We highlight how these threats can affect theconservation status and ecological roles of this planet's 31 largest carnivores.
@article{rippleStatusEcologicalEffects2014,
  title = {Status and Ecological Effects of the World's Largest Carnivores},
  author = {Ripple, William J. and Estes, James A. and Beschta, Robert L. and Wilmers, Christopher C. and Ritchie, Euan G. and Hebblewhite, Mark and Berger, Joel and Elmhagen, Bodil and Letnic, Mike and Nelson, Michael P. and Schmitz, Oswald J. and Smith, Douglas W. and Wallach, Arian D. and Wirsing, Aaron J.},
  date = {2014-01},
  journaltitle = {Science},
  volume = {343},
  pages = {1241484+},
  issn = {1095-9203},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1241484},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484},
  abstract = {The largest terrestrial species in the order Carnivora are wide-ranging and rare because of their positions at the top of food webs. They are some of the world's most admired mammals and, ironically, some of the most imperiled. Most have experienced substantial population declines and range contractions throughout the world during the past two centuries. Because of the high metabolic demands that come with endothermy and large body size, these carnivores often require large prey and expansive habitats. These food requirements and wide-ranging behavior often bring them into conflict with humans and livestock. This, in addition to human intolerance, renders them vulnerable to extinction. Large carnivores face enormous threats that have caused massive declines in their populations and geographic ranges, including habitat loss and degradation,persecution, utilization, and depletion of prey. We highlight how these threats can affect theconservation status and ecological roles of this planet's 31 largest carnivores.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-12904809,~to-add-doi-URL,anthropogenic-impacts,carnivores,ecology,ecosystem-conservation,ecosystem-resilience,ecosystem-services,forest-resources,fragmentation,integrated-modelling,mammals,non-linearity},
  number = {6167}
}
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