Escape hepatitis B virus mutations in recipients of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen-positive liver grafts receiving hepatitis B immunoglobulins. Roche, B., Roque-Afonso, A. M., Sebagh, M., Delvart, V., Duclos-Vallee, J. C., Castaing, D., & Samuel, D. Liver Transpl, 16(7):885–94, July, 2010.
abstract   bibtex   
A variety of prophylactic strategies are used to prevent the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)-positive donors. The mechanisms underlying the failure of HBV immunoglobulin monoprophylaxis have been poorly evaluated. Seventy-seven anti-HBc-positive grafts were used in 21 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive recipients and 56 HBsAg-negative recipients. HBsAg-positive recipients received prophylaxis comprising hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG) and antiviral agents, 45 HBsAg-negative recipients received a modified HBIG regimen, and 11 HBsAg-negative recipients received no prophylaxis. Both donors and recipients were screened for HBsAg, antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc in their sera and for HBV DNA in both their sera and liver. S gene mutations were investigated after HBV reinfection. HBV infection occurred in 15 HBsAg-negative recipients (19.4%) at a median interval of 16 months (range = 6-67 months) post-transplant and in none of the HBsAg-positive recipients. HBV infections were observed in 31.6% of HBV-naive recipients and 7.7% of HBV-immune recipients receiving HBIG prophylaxis versus 100% of HBV-naive recipients (P = 0.0068) and 33% of HBV-immune recipients (P = 0.08) with no such prophylaxis. S gene mutations were identified in 9 recipients. In conclusion, priority should be given to using anti-HBc positive grafts for HBsAg-positive or HBV-immune recipients. Our study has confirmed the high risk of HBV transmission to naive recipients. HBIG monoprophylaxis was associated with a significant risk of de novo HBV infection and HBV escape mutations. In these patients, we therefore recommend prophylaxis with lamivudine or new nucleos(t)ides analogues. The potential benefits of HBIG prophylaxis combined with antiviral drugs require further evaluations. Long-term prophylaxis is needed because of the long interval of de novo HBV infection post-transplant in some patients.
@article{roche_escape_2010,
	title = {Escape hepatitis {B} virus mutations in recipients of antibody to hepatitis {B} core antigen-positive liver grafts receiving hepatitis {B} immunoglobulins},
	volume = {16},
	issn = {1527-6473 (ELECTRONIC); 1527-6465 (LINKING)},
	shorttitle = {Escape hepatitis {B} virus mutations in recipients of antibody to hepatitis {B} core antigen-positive liver grafts receiving hepatitis {B} immunoglobulins},
	abstract = {A variety of prophylactic strategies are used to prevent the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)-positive donors. The mechanisms underlying the failure of HBV immunoglobulin monoprophylaxis have been poorly evaluated. Seventy-seven anti-HBc-positive grafts were used in 21 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive recipients and 56 HBsAg-negative recipients. HBsAg-positive recipients received prophylaxis comprising hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIG) and antiviral agents, 45 HBsAg-negative recipients received a modified HBIG regimen, and 11 HBsAg-negative recipients received no prophylaxis. Both donors and recipients were screened for HBsAg, antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc in their sera and for HBV DNA in both their sera and liver. S gene mutations were investigated after HBV reinfection. HBV infection occurred in 15 HBsAg-negative recipients (19.4\%) at a median interval of 16 months (range = 6-67 months) post-transplant and in none of the HBsAg-positive recipients. HBV infections were observed in 31.6\% of HBV-naive recipients and 7.7\% of HBV-immune recipients receiving HBIG prophylaxis versus 100\% of HBV-naive recipients (P = 0.0068) and 33\% of HBV-immune recipients (P = 0.08) with no such prophylaxis. S gene mutations were identified in 9 recipients. In conclusion, priority should be given to using anti-HBc positive grafts for HBsAg-positive or HBV-immune recipients. Our study has confirmed the high risk of HBV transmission to naive recipients. HBIG monoprophylaxis was associated with a significant risk of de novo HBV infection and HBV escape mutations. In these patients, we therefore recommend prophylaxis with lamivudine or new nucleos(t)ides analogues. The potential benefits of HBIG prophylaxis combined with antiviral drugs require further evaluations. Long-term prophylaxis is needed because of the long interval of de novo HBV infection post-transplant in some patients.},
	number = {7},
	journal = {Liver Transpl},
	author = {Roche, B. and Roque-Afonso, A. M. and Sebagh, M. and Delvart, V. and Duclos-Vallee, J. C. and Castaing, D. and Samuel, D.},
	month = jul,
	year = {2010},
	keywords = {\&, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Agents/therapeutic, Antigens/, Antiviral, B, B/epidemiology/immunology/, Envelope, Factors, Hepatitis, Humans, Immunoglobulins/, Incidence, Lamivudine/therapeutic, Liver, Longitudinal, Middle, Mutation/, Nucleosides/therapeutic, Outcome, Proteins/, Retrospective, Risk, Studies, Surface, Transplantation, Transplantation/, Treatment, Viral, Young, control, genetics, immunology, prevention, therapeutic, use},
	pages = {885--94}
}

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