Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR*D report. Rush, A. J.; Trivedi, M. H.; Wisniewski, S. R.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Stewart, J. W.; Warden, D.; Niederehe, G.; Thase, M. E.; Lavori, P. W.; Lebowitz, B. D.; McGrath, P. J.; Rosenbaum, J. F.; Sackeim, H. A.; Kupfer, D. J.; Luther, J.; and Fava, M. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(11):1905–1917, November, 2006.
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OBJECTIVE: This report describes the participants and compares the acute and longer-term treatment outcomes associated with each of four successive steps in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. METHOD: A broadly representative adult outpatient sample with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder received one (N=3,671) to four (N=123) successive acute treatment steps. Those not achieving remission with or unable to tolerate a treatment step were encouraged to move to the next step. Those with an acceptable benefit, preferably symptom remission, from any particular step could enter a 12-month naturalistic follow-up phase. A score of \textlessor=5 on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR(16)) (equivalent to \textlessor=7 on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD(17)]) defined remission; a QIDS-SR(16) total score of \textgreateror=11 (HRSD(17)\textgreateror=14) defined relapse. RESULTS: The QIDS-SR(16) remission rates were 36.8%, 30.6%, 13.7%, and 13.0% for the first, second, third, and fourth acute treatment steps, respectively. The overall cumulative remission rate was 67%. Overall, those who required more treatment steps had higher relapse rates during the naturalistic follow-up phase. In addition, lower relapse rates were found among participants who were in remission at follow-up entry than for those who were not after the first three treatment steps. CONCLUSIONS: When more treatment steps are required, lower acute remission rates (especially in the third and fourth treatment steps) and higher relapse rates during the follow-up phase are to be expected. Studies to identify the best multistep treatment sequences for individual patients and the development of more broadly effective treatments are needed.
@article{rush_acute_2006,
	title = {Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a {STAR}*{D} report},
	volume = {163},
	issn = {0002-953X},
	shorttitle = {Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps},
	doi = {10.1176/ajp.2006.163.11.1905},
	abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This report describes the participants and compares the acute and longer-term treatment outcomes associated with each of four successive steps in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial.
METHOD: A broadly representative adult outpatient sample with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder received one (N=3,671) to four (N=123) successive acute treatment steps. Those not achieving remission with or unable to tolerate a treatment step were encouraged to move to the next step. Those with an acceptable benefit, preferably symptom remission, from any particular step could enter a 12-month naturalistic follow-up phase. A score of {\textless}or=5 on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR(16)) (equivalent to {\textless}or=7 on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD(17)]) defined remission; a QIDS-SR(16) total score of {\textgreater}or=11 (HRSD(17){\textgreater}or=14) defined relapse.
RESULTS: The QIDS-SR(16) remission rates were 36.8\%, 30.6\%, 13.7\%, and 13.0\% for the first, second, third, and fourth acute treatment steps, respectively. The overall cumulative remission rate was 67\%. Overall, those who required more treatment steps had higher relapse rates during the naturalistic follow-up phase. In addition, lower relapse rates were found among participants who were in remission at follow-up entry than for those who were not after the first three treatment steps.
CONCLUSIONS: When more treatment steps are required, lower acute remission rates (especially in the third and fourth treatment steps) and higher relapse rates during the follow-up phase are to be expected. Studies to identify the best multistep treatment sequences for individual patients and the development of more broadly effective treatments are needed.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {11},
	journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
	author = {Rush, A. John and Trivedi, Madhukar H. and Wisniewski, Stephen R. and Nierenberg, Andrew A. and Stewart, Jonathan W. and Warden, Diane and Niederehe, George and Thase, Michael E. and Lavori, Philip W. and Lebowitz, Barry D. and McGrath, Patrick J. and Rosenbaum, Jerrold F. and Sackeim, Harold A. and Kupfer, David J. and Luther, James and Fava, Maurizio},
	month = nov,
	year = {2006},
	pmid = {17074942},
	keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Ambulatory Care, Antidepressive Agents, Clinical Protocols, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Combined Modality Therapy, Depressive Disorder, Major, Drug Therapy, Combination, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Personality Inventory, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Secondary Prevention, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Outcome},
	pages = {1905--1917}
}
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