Use of intracardiac echocardiography for prediction of chronic pulmonary vein stenosis after ablation of atrial fibrillation. Saad, E.; Cole, C.; Marrouche, N.; Dresing, T.; Perez-Lugones, A.; Saliba, W.; Schweikert, R.; Klein, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Grimm, R.; Tchou, P.; and Natale, A. j-JCE, 13(10):986--989, October, 2002.
bibtex   
@Article{RSM:Saa2002b,
  author =       "E.B. Saad and C.R. Cole and N.F. Marrouche and T.J.
                 Dresing and A. Perez-Lugones and W.I. Saliba and R.A.
                 Schweikert and A. Klein and L. Rodriguez and R. Grimm
                 and P. Tchou and A. Natale",
  title =        "Use of intracardiac echocardiography for prediction of
                 chronic pulmonary vein stenosis after ablation of
                 atrial fibrillation.",
  journal =      j-JCE,
  year =         "2002",
  month =        oct,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "986--989",
  robnote =      "afib INTRODUCTION: Measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) flow
                 with intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) immediately
                 before and after PV isolation may be a useful method
                 for predicting which patients will develop chronic PV
                 stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed preablation
                 and postablation flows in each of the four PVs using a
                 phase-array ICE catheter in 95 patients (mean age 52
                 +/- 13) undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. The
                 ostium of each of the PVs was defined using
                 angiography, electrical mapping, and ICE imaging.
                 Ostial electrical isolation of all PVs was achieved
                 using a 4-mm cooled-tip radiofrequency ablation
                 catheter. Change in PV flow, when present, was examined
                 as both an absolute value and as a percentage of the
                 baseline flow. All patients underwent spiral computed
                 tomography (CT) scans of the PVs 3 months after the
                 procedure for detection of stenosis. The average
                 preablation diastolic flows for the left superior, left
                 inferior, right superior, and right inferior veins were
                 0.56, 0.54, 0.47, and 0.45 m/sec, respectively. These
                 values increased to 0.74, 0.67, 0.58, and 0.59 m/sec
                 postablation (P < 0.001). Of 380 PVs ablated, the CT
                 scans revealed 2 (1\%) with severe (>70\%) stenosis, 13
                 (3\%) with moderate (51\%-70\%) stenosis, and 62 (16\%)
                 with mild (< or = 50\%) stenosis. The r value between
                 flow and stenosis was only 0.09 (P = NS). CONCLUSION:
                 Acute changes in PV flow immediately after ostial PV
                 isolation do not appear to be a strong predictor of
                 chronic PV stenosis.",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 11 12:17:51 2007",
}
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