Reactive uptake of nitric acid onto sodium chloride aerosols across a wide range of relative humidities. Saul, T., D., Tolocka, M., P., & Johnston, M., V. The journal of physical chemistry. A, 110(24):7614-20, 6, 2006.
Reactive uptake of nitric acid onto sodium chloride aerosols across a wide range of relative humidities. [pdf]Paper  Reactive uptake of nitric acid onto sodium chloride aerosols across a wide range of relative humidities. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Reactive uptake coefficients for nitric acid onto size-selected (d(ve) = 102 and 233 nm) sodium chloride aerosols are determined for relative humidities (RH) between 85% and 10%. Both pure sodium chloride and sodium chloride mixed with magnesium chloride (X(Mg/Na) = 0.114, typical of sea salt) are studied. The aerosol is equilibrated with a carrier gas stream at the desired RH and then mixed with nitric acid vapor at a concentration of 60 ppb in a laminar flow tube reactor. At the end of the reactor, the particle composition is determined in real time with a laser ablation single particle mass spectrometer. For relative humidities above the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH), the particles exist as liquid droplets and the uptake coefficient ranges from 0.05 at 85% RH to >0.1 near the ERH. The droplet sizes, relative humidity and composition dependencies, are readily predicted by thermodynamics. For relative humidities below the ERH, the particles are nominally "solid" and uptake depends on the amount of surface adsorbed water (SAW). The addition of magnesium chloride to the particle phase (0.114 mole ratio of magnesium to sodium) facilitates uptake by increasing the amount of SAW. In the presence of magnesium chloride, the uptake coefficient remains high (>0.1) down to 10% RH, suggesting that the displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles is efficient over the entire range of conditions in the ambient marine environment. In the marine boundary layer, displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles should be nearly complete within a few hours (faster in polluted areas)-a time scale much shorter than the particle residence time in the atmosphere.
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 title = {Reactive uptake of nitric acid onto sodium chloride aerosols across a wide range of relative humidities.},
 type = {article},
 year = {2006},
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 pages = {7614-20},
 volume = {110},
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 month = {6},
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 abstract = {Reactive uptake coefficients for nitric acid onto size-selected (d(ve) = 102 and 233 nm) sodium chloride aerosols are determined for relative humidities (RH) between 85% and 10%. Both pure sodium chloride and sodium chloride mixed with magnesium chloride (X(Mg/Na) = 0.114, typical of sea salt) are studied. The aerosol is equilibrated with a carrier gas stream at the desired RH and then mixed with nitric acid vapor at a concentration of 60 ppb in a laminar flow tube reactor. At the end of the reactor, the particle composition is determined in real time with a laser ablation single particle mass spectrometer. For relative humidities above the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH), the particles exist as liquid droplets and the uptake coefficient ranges from 0.05 at 85% RH to >0.1 near the ERH. The droplet sizes, relative humidity and composition dependencies, are readily predicted by thermodynamics. For relative humidities below the ERH, the particles are nominally "solid" and uptake depends on the amount of surface adsorbed water (SAW). The addition of magnesium chloride to the particle phase (0.114 mole ratio of magnesium to sodium) facilitates uptake by increasing the amount of SAW. In the presence of magnesium chloride, the uptake coefficient remains high (>0.1) down to 10% RH, suggesting that the displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles is efficient over the entire range of conditions in the ambient marine environment. In the marine boundary layer, displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles should be nearly complete within a few hours (faster in polluted areas)-a time scale much shorter than the particle residence time in the atmosphere.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Saul, Thomas D and Tolocka, Michael P and Johnston, Murray V},
 journal = {The journal of physical chemistry. A},
 number = {24}
}
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