In-situ characterization of laser-powder interaction and cooling rates through high-speed imaging of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. Scipioni Bertoli, U., Guss, G., Wu, S., Matthews, M. J., & Schoenung, J. M. Materials & Design, 135(Supplement C):385–396, December, 2017.
In-situ characterization of laser-powder interaction and cooling rates through high-speed imaging of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Detailed understanding of the complex melt pool physics plays a vital role in predicting optimal processing regimes in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. In this work, we use high framerate video recording of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) to provide useful insight on the laser-powder interaction and melt pool evolution of 316L powder layers, while also serving as a novel instrument to quantify cooling rates of the melt pool. The experiment was performed using two powder types – one gas- and one water-atomized – to further clarify how morphological and chemical differences between these two feedstock materials influence the laser melting process. Finally, experimentally determined cooling rates are compared with values obtained through computer simulation, and the relationship between cooling rate and grain cell size is compared with data previously published in the literature.
@article{scipioni_bertoli_-situ_2017,
	title = {In-situ characterization of laser-powder interaction and cooling rates through high-speed imaging of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing},
	volume = {135},
	issn = {0264-1275},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264127517308894},
	doi = {10.1016/j.matdes.2017.09.044},
	abstract = {Detailed understanding of the complex melt pool physics plays a vital role in predicting optimal processing regimes in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. In this work, we use high framerate video recording of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) to provide useful insight on the laser-powder interaction and melt pool evolution of 316L powder layers, while also serving as a novel instrument to quantify cooling rates of the melt pool. The experiment was performed using two powder types – one gas- and one water-atomized – to further clarify how morphological and chemical differences between these two feedstock materials influence the laser melting process. Finally, experimentally determined cooling rates are compared with values obtained through computer simulation, and the relationship between cooling rate and grain cell size is compared with data previously published in the literature.},
	number = {Supplement C},
	urldate = {2018-01-08},
	journal = {Materials \& Design},
	author = {Scipioni Bertoli, Umberto and Guss, Gabe and Wu, Sheldon and Matthews, Manyalibo J. and Schoenung, Julie M.},
	month = dec,
	year = {2017},
	keywords = {316L stainless steel, High speed imaging, Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Published, Reviewed, Selective Laser Melting, Ultra-high cooling rate, Water atomized powder},
	pages = {385--396},
}

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