On the limitations of Volumetric Energy Density as a design parameter for Selective Laser Melting. Scipioni Bertoli, U., Wolfer, A. J., Matthews, M. J., Delplanque, J. R., & Schoenung, J. M. Materials & Design, 113(Supplement C):331–340, January, 2017.
On the limitations of Volumetric Energy Density as a design parameter for Selective Laser Melting [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Energy density is often used as a metric to compare components manufactured with Selective Laser Melting (SLM) under different sets of deposition parameters (e.g., laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, etc.). We present a brief review of the current literature on additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel (SS) related to input parameter scaling relations. From previously published work we identified a range of Volumetric Energy Density (VED) values that should lead to deposition of fully dense parts. In order to corroborate these data, we designed a series of experiments to investigate the reliability of VED as a design parameter by comparing single tracks of 316L SS deposited with variable deposition parameters. Our results show the suitability of VED as a design parameter to describe SLM to be limited to a narrow band of applicability, which is attributed to the inability of this parameter to capture the complex physics of the melt pool. Caution should be exercised when using VED as a design parameter for SLM.
@article{scipioni_bertoli_limitations_2017,
	title = {On the limitations of {Volumetric} {Energy} {Density} as a design parameter for {Selective} {Laser} {Melting}},
	volume = {113},
	issn = {0264-1275},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264127516313363},
	doi = {10.1016/j.matdes.2016.10.037},
	abstract = {Energy density is often used as a metric to compare components manufactured with Selective Laser Melting (SLM) under different sets of deposition parameters (e.g., laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, etc.). We present a brief review of the current literature on additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel (SS) related to input parameter scaling relations. From previously published work we identified a range of Volumetric Energy Density (VED) values that should lead to deposition of fully dense parts. In order to corroborate these data, we designed a series of experiments to investigate the reliability of VED as a design parameter by comparing single tracks of 316L SS deposited with variable deposition parameters. Our results show the suitability of VED as a design parameter to describe SLM to be limited to a narrow band of applicability, which is attributed to the inability of this parameter to capture the complex physics of the melt pool. Caution should be exercised when using VED as a design parameter for SLM.},
	number = {Supplement C},
	urldate = {2018-01-08},
	journal = {Materials \& Design},
	author = {Scipioni Bertoli, Umberto and Wolfer, Alexander J. and Matthews, Manyalibo J. and Delplanque, Jean-Pierre R. and Schoenung, Julie M.},
	month = jan,
	year = {2017},
	keywords = {316L stainless steel, Energy density, Keyhole-mode laser melting, Powder-bed fusion, Published, Reviewed, Selective Laser Melting},
	pages = {331--340},
}

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