Direct stress measurements in a shallow, sinuous estuary. Seim, H. E.; Blanton, J. O.; and Gross, T. Continental Shelf Research, 2002.
abstract   bibtex   
Observations from a 4 element mooring array collected in a bend of a shallow, sinuous estuary are used to describe the flow, density structure and momentum balance over a 10-day period. In general, the flow in the lower 3 m is stratified on ebb and unstratified on flood and shear is concentrated near the bed on flood and nearly uniform throughout the water column on ebb. At spring tides stratification is reduced and the flows 1 m above bottom (mab) are consistently greatest at the downstream end of the bend. The along-channel density gradient is weakest during spring tides owing to zero gradient over most of ebb flow. At neap tides vertical stratification is strong enough to raise the gradient Richardson number well above 0.25 for most of the ebb tide. Currents are weaker and do not display a regular along-channel pattern. The variation in density and current structure is interpreted to result from variations in crosschannel circulation associated with the channel bend. At spring tides, the cross-channel circulation appears to be strong enough to overturn the water column whereas at neap tides stratification is strong enough to halt the overturning. Reynolds stress measured with a Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor undergoes a four-fold increase between neap and spring tide. The drag coefficient relative to flow at 1 mab is 0.0015
@article{seim_direct_2002,
	title = {Direct stress measurements in a shallow, sinuous estuary},
	volume = {22},
	abstract = {Observations from a 4 element mooring array collected in a bend of a shallow, sinuous estuary are used to describe the flow, density structure and momentum balance over a 10-day period. In general, the flow in the lower 3 m is stratified on ebb and unstratified on flood and shear is concentrated near the bed on flood and nearly uniform throughout the water column on ebb. At spring tides stratification is reduced and the flows 1 m above bottom (mab) are consistently greatest at the downstream end of the bend. The along-channel density gradient is weakest during spring tides owing to zero gradient over most of ebb flow. At neap tides vertical stratification is strong enough to raise the gradient Richardson number well above 0.25 for most of the ebb tide. Currents are weaker and do not display a regular along-channel pattern. The variation in density and current structure is interpreted to result from variations in crosschannel circulation associated with the channel bend. At spring tides, the cross-channel circulation appears to be strong enough to overturn the water column whereas at neap tides stratification is strong enough to halt the overturning. Reynolds stress measured with a Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor undergoes a four-fold increase between neap and spring tide. The drag coefficient relative to flow at 1 mab is 0.0015},
	journal = {Continental Shelf Research},
	author = {Seim, Harvey E. and Blanton, Jackson O. and Gross, Thomas.},
	year = {2002},
	keywords = {GCE, estuary, stress, sinuous, physical oceanography, shallow}
}
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