Effects of <i>Bacillus&nbsp;thuringiensis</i>&#x03B4;-endotoxin-fed <i>Helicoverpa&nbsp;armigera</i> on the survival and development of the parasitoid <i>Campoletis&nbsp;chlorideae</i>. Sharma, H., C., Dhillon, M., K., & Arora, R. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata, 126(1):1-8, 2008.
Effects of <i>Bacillus&nbsp;thuringiensis</i>&#x03B4;-endotoxin-fed <i>Helicoverpa&nbsp;armigera</i> on the survival and development of the parasitoid <i>Campoletis&nbsp;chlorideae</i> [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
With the deployment of transgenic crops expressing 03B4-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for pest management, there is a need to generate information on the interaction of crop pests with their natural enemies that are important for regulation of pest populations. Therefore, we studied the effects of the Bt 03B4-endotoxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac on the survival and development of the parasitoid Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) reared on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae fed on Bt toxin-intoxicated artificial diet. The H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet impregnated with Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at LC50 (effective concentration to kill 50% of the neonate H. armigera larvae) and ED50 (effective concentration to cause a 50% reduction in larval weight) levels before and after parasitization resulted in a significant reduction in cocoon formation and adult emergence of C. chlorideae. Larval period of the parasitoid was prolonged by 2 days when fed on Bt-intoxicated larvae. No adverse effects were observed on female fecundity. The observed effects appeared to be indirect in nature, because no Bt proteins were detected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the C. chlorideae larvae, cocoons, or adults fed on Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-treated H. armigera larvae. The effects of Bt toxin proteins on C. chlorideae were due to early mortality of H. armigera larvae, that is, before completion of parasitoid larval development.

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