Sleep, 27(4):784-92, 6, 2004. Paper abstract bibtex
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children using an automated classification system based on analysis of overnight electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: A pediatric sleep clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty children underwent full overnight polysomnography. INTERVENTION: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Expert polysomnography scoring was performed. The datasets were divided into a training set of 25 subjects (11 normal, 14 with OSA) and a withheld test set of 25 subjects (11 normal, 14 with OSA). Features, calculated from the ECG of the 25 training datasets, were empirically chosen to train a modified quadratic discriminant analysis classification system. The selected configuration used a segment length of 60 seconds and processed mean, SD, power spectral density, and serial correlation measures to classify segments as apneic or normal. By combining per-segment classifications and using receiver-operator characteristic analysis, a per-subject classifier was obtained that had a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 90.9%, and accuracy of 88% on the training datasets. The same decision threshold was applied to the withheld datasets and yielded a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 81.8%, and accuracy of 84%. The positive and negative predictive values were 85.7% and 81.8%, respectively, on the test dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to correctly identify 12 out of 14 cases of OSA (with the 2 false negatives arising from subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index less than 10) indicates that the automated apnea classification system outlined may have clinical utility in pediatric patients.