Hesitation phenomena and pauses. Simpson, A. P In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, pages 284–288. Elsevier, Oxford, 2 edition, 2006.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
This article describes some of the phonetic strategies that speakers use when they are confronted with formulation problems, such as finding an appropriate lexical item or expression. First, the reasons for suspension are examined followed by a description of different types of silent pause. The form of hesitation particles (um, er) in filled pauses in English and other languages are described, as is use of lengthening and sound quality. Finally, a short excerpt from a map task dialogue is used to illustrate the different types of hesitation that can occur in a single short stretch of utterance.
@incollection{simpson_hesitation_2006,
	Address = {Oxford},
	Author = {Simpson, Adrian P},
	Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Language \& Linguistics},
	Date = {2006},
	Date-Modified = {2018-05-12 22:37:01 +0000},
	Doi = {10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00580-0},
	Edition = {2},
	Editor = {Brown, Keith},
	Keywords = {disfluencies, general, pauses, phonetics, prosody, temporal factors},
	Pages = {284--288},
	Publisher = {Elsevier},
	Title = {Hesitation phenomena and pauses},
	Year = {2006},
	Abstract = {This article describes some of the phonetic strategies that speakers use when they are confronted with formulation problems, such as finding an appropriate lexical item or expression. First, the reasons for suspension are examined followed by a description of different types of silent pause. The form of hesitation particles (um, er) in filled pauses in English and other languages are described, as is use of lengthening and sound quality. Finally, a short excerpt from a map task dialogue is used to illustrate the different types of hesitation that can occur in a single short stretch of utterance.},
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